Բացել գլխավոր ցանկը

Dennis Lynn Rader (born March 9, 1945) is an American serial killer known as BTK or the BTK Strangler. He gave himself the name "BTK" (for "Bind, Torture, Kill"). Between 1974 and 1991, Rader killed ten people in the Wichita, Kansas metro area.

Rader sent taunting letters to police and newspapers describing the details of his crimes.[1][2][3] After a decade-long hiatus, Rader resumed sending letters in 2004, leading to his 2005 arrest and subsequent guilty plea. He is serving ten consecutive life sentences at El Dorado Correctional Facility in Kansas.

Բովանդակություն

Early life and careerԽմբագրել

Dennis Rader was born on March 9, 1945, and is the oldest of four sons born to Dorothea Mae Rader (née Cook) and William Elvin Rader.[4] He has Danish, German and Swiss ancestry.[4] Though born in Pittsburg, Kansas, he grew up in Wichita. He had a sexual fetish for women's underwear and stole underpants from his victims and wore them himself.[5]Կաղապար:Better source

Rader spent 1966–1970 in the United States Air Force.[5] Upon discharge, he moved to Park City, where he worked in the meat department of a Leekers IGA supermarket where his mother was a bookkeeper.[6] He married Paula Dietz on May 22, 1971, and they had two children.[7][8] He attended Butler County Community College in El Dorado, earning an associate degree in electronics in 1973.[9] He then enrolled at Wichita State University, and graduated in 1979 with a bachelor's degree in administration of justice.

Rader worked as an assembler for the Coleman Company, an outdoor supply company. He worked at the Wichita-based office of ADT Security Services from 1974 to 1988, where he installed security alarms as a part of his job, in many cases for homeowners concerned about the BTK killings.[7][10] Rader was a census field operations supervisor for the Wichita area in 1989, before the 1990 federal census.[11] In May 1991, he became a dogcatcher and compliance officer in Park City.[12][7][13][14] In this position, neighbors recalled him as being sometimes overzealous and extremely strict. One neighbor complained he killed her dog for no reason.[15]

Rader was a member of Christ Lutheran Church and had been elected president of the church council.[7][16] He was also a Cub Scout leader.[7] On July 26, 2005, after Rader's arrest, his wife was granted an "emergency divorce" (waiving the normal waiting period).[8][17]

Case historyԽմբագրել

MurdersԽմբագրել

On January 15, 1974, four members of the Otero family were murdered in Wichita, Kansas.[18] The victims were father Joseph Otero, aged 38, mother Julie Otero, age 33, and two children: Joseph Otero Jr. age 9, and Josephine Otero age 11. Their bodies were discovered by the family's eldest child, Charlie Otero, who was in 10th grade at the time, as he returned home from school.[18] After his 2005 arrest, Rader confessed to killing the Otero family.[19] Rader wrote a letter that had been stashed inside an engineering book in the Wichita Public Library in October 1974 that described, in detail, the killing of the Otero family in January of that year.[11]

In early 1978, he sent another letter to television station KAKE in Wichita, claiming responsibility for the murders of the Oteros, Kathryn Bright, Shirley Vian and Nancy Fox.[11] He suggested many possible names for himself, including the one that stuck: BTK. He demanded media attention in this second letter, and it was finally announced that Wichita did indeed have a serial killer at large. A poem was enclosed titled "Oh! Death to Nancy," a parody of the lyrics to the American folk song "O Death."[20][21]

He also intended to kill others, such as Anna Williams, who in 1979, aged 63, escaped death by returning home much later than expected. Rader explained during his confession that he became obsessed with Williams and was "absolutely livid" when she evaded him. He spent hours waiting at her home, but became impatient and left when she did not return home from visiting friends.[22]

Marine Hedge, aged 53, was found on May 5, 1985, at East 53rd Street North between North Webb Road and North Greenwich Road in Wichita. Rader had killed her on April 27, 1985 and he took her dead body to his church, the Christ Lutheran Church, where he was the president of the church council. There, he photographed her body in various bondage positions. Rader had previously stored black plastic sheets and other materials at the church in anticipation for the murder and then later dumped the body in a remote ditch. He had called his plan "Project Cookie".[23]

In 1988, after the murders of three members of the Fager family in Wichita, a letter was received from someone claiming to be the BTK killer, in which the author of the letter denied being the perpetrator of the Fager murders. The author credited the killer with having done "admirable work." It was not proven until 2005 that this letter was, in fact, written by Rader. He is not considered by police to have committed this crime.[21] Additionally, two of the women Rader had stalked in the 1980s and one he had stalked in the mid-1990s filed restraining orders against him; one of them also moved away.[24]

His final victim, Dolores E. Davis, was found on February 1, 1991, at West 117th Street North and North Meridian Street in Sedgwick. She had been killed by Rader on January 19, 1991.[25]

Cold caseԽմբագրել

By 2004, the investigation of the BTK Killer was considered a cold case. Then, Rader began a series of 11 communications to the local media that led directly to his arrest in February 2005. In March 2004, The Wichita Eagle received a letter from someone using the return address Bill Thomas Killman. The author of the letter claimed that he had murdered Vicki Wegerle on September 16, 1986, and enclosed photographs of the crime scene and a photocopy of her driver's license, which had been stolen at the time of the crime.[26] Before this, it had not been definitively established that Wegerle was killed by BTK.[26] DNA collected from under Wegerle's fingernails provided police with previously unknown evidence. They then began DNA testing hundreds of men in an effort to find the serial killer.[27] Altogether, over 1,300 DNA samples were taken and later destroyed by court order.[28]

In May 2004, television station KAKE in Wichita received a letter with chapter headings for the "BTK Story," fake IDs, and a word puzzle.[6] On June 9, 2004, a package was found taped to a stop sign at the corner of First and Kansas in Wichita. It had graphic descriptions of the Otero murders and a sketch labeled "The Sexual Thrill Is My Bill."[29] Also enclosed was a chapter list for a proposed book titled The BTK Story, which mimicked a story written in 1999 by Court TV crime writer David Lohr. Chapter One was titled "A Serial Killer Is Born." In July, a package was dropped into the return slot at the downtown public library containing more bizarre material, including the claim that he was responsible for the death of 19-year-old Jake Allen in Argonia, Kansas, earlier that month. This claim was false, and the death was ruled a suicide.[30] After his capture, Rader admitted in his interrogation that he had been planning to kill again and he had set a date, October 2004, and was stalking his intended victim.[24] In October 2004, a manila envelope was dropped into a UPS box in Wichita. It had many cards with images of terror and bondage of children pasted on them, a poem threatening the life of lead investigator Lt. Ken Landwehr, and a false autobiography with many details about Rader's life. These details were later released to the public.[փա՞ստ]

In December 2004, Wichita police received another package from the BTK killer.[31] This time, the package was found in Wichita's Murdock Park. It had the driver's license of Nancy Fox, which was noted as stolen from the crime scene, as well as a doll that was symbolically bound at the hands and feet, and had a plastic bag tied over its head.[30]

In January 2005, Rader attempted to leave a cereal box in the bed of a pickup truck at a Home Depot in Wichita, but the box was discarded by the truck's owner. It was later retrieved from the trash after Rader asked what had become of it in a later message. Surveillance tape of the parking lot from that date revealed a distant figure driving a black Jeep Cherokee leaving the box in the pickup. In February, more postcards were sent to KAKE, and another cereal box left at a rural location was found to contain another bound doll, apparently meant to symbolize the murder of 11-year-old Josephine Otero.[փա՞ստ]

In his letters to police, Rader asked if his writings, if put on a floppy disk, could be traced or not. The police answered his question in a newspaper ad posted in the Wichita Eagle saying it would be safe to use the disk. On February 16, 2005, Rader sent a purple 1.44-Megabyte Memorex floppy disk to Fox TV affiliate KSAS-TV in Wichita.[32][33] Also enclosed were a letter, a gold-colored necklace with a large medallion, and a photocopy of the cover of a 1989 novel about a serial killer: Rules of Prey.[33]

Police found metadata embedded in a deleted Microsoft Word document which was, unknown to Rader, still stored on the floppy disk.[34] The metadata contained the words "Christ Lutheran Church", and the document was marked as last modified by "Dennis."[35] An internet search determined that a "Dennis Rader" was president of the church council.[32] From the Home Depot incident, the police also knew BTK owned a black Jeep Cherokee. When investigators drove by Rader's house, they noticed a black Jeep Cherokee parked outside.[36]

The police had strong circumstantial evidence against Rader, but they needed more direct evidence to detain him.[37] They obtained a warrant to test the DNA of a pap smear Rader's daughter had taken at the Kansas State University medical clinic when she was a student there. The DNA of the pap smear was processed by the Kansas Bureau of Investigation at their lab in Topeka, and demonstrated a familial match to the sample taken from Wegerle's fingernails. This indicated that the killer was closely related to Rader's daughter, and was the evidence the police needed to make an arrest.[38]

ArrestԽմբագրել

Rader was arrested while driving near his home in Park City shortly after noon on February 25, 2005.[39] An officer asked, "Mr. Rader, do you know why you're going downtown?" Rader replied, "Oh, I have suspicions why."[40][41] Wichita Police, the Kansas Bureau of Investigation, the FBI, and ATF agents searched Rader's home and vehicle, seizing evidence including computer equipment, a pair of black pantyhose retrieved from a shed, and a cylindrical container. The church he attended, his office at City Hall, and the main branch of the Park City library were also searched. At a press conference the next morning, Wichita Police Chief Norman Williams announced, "the bottom line: BTK is arrested."[42][43]

Legal proceedingsԽմբագրել

On February 28, 2005, Rader was charged with 10 counts of first degree murder.[44] Soon after his arrest, the Associated Press cited an anonymous source alleging Rader had confessed to other murders in addition to those with which he had been connected;[45] the Sedgwick County district attorney denied this but refused to say whether Rader made any confessions or if investigators were looking into Rader's possible involvement in more unsolved killings.[46] On March 5, news sources claimed to have verified by multiple sources that Rader had confessed to the 10 murders he was charged with, but no other ones.[47]

On March 1, Rader's bail was set at US$10 million, and a public defender was appointed to represent him.[48] On May 3, the judge entered not-guilty pleas on Rader's behalf, as Rader did not speak at his arraignment;[49] however, on June 27, the scheduled trial date, Rader changed his plea to guilty. He described the murders in detail, and made no apologies.[50][51][52]

At Rader's August 18 sentencing, victims' families made statements, after which Rader apologized in a rambling thirty-minute monologue that the prosecutor likened to an Academy Awards acceptance speech.[53] His statement has been described as an example of an often-observed phenomenon among psychopaths: their inability to understand the emotional content of language.[54] He was sentenced to 10 consecutive life sentences, with a minimum of 175 years.[55] Kansas had no death penalty at the time of the murders.[53] On August 19, he was moved to the El Dorado Correctional Facility.[56]

Rader talked about innocuous topics such as the weather during the 40-minute drive to El Dorado, but began to cry when the victims' families' statements from the court proceedings came on the radio. He is now in solitary confinement for his protection (with one hour of exercise per day, and showers three times per week). This will likely continue indefinitely. Beginning 2006, he was allowed access to television and radio, to read magazines, and other privileges for good behavior.[56][57]

Further investigationsԽմբագրել

Following Rader's arrest, police in Wichita, Park City and several surrounding cities looked into unsolved cases with the cooperation of the state police and the FBI. They particularly focused on cases after 1994, when the death penalty was reinstated in Kansas. Police in surrounding states such as Nebraska, Missouri, Colorado, Oklahoma and Texas also investigated cold cases that fit Rader's pattern to some extent. The FBI, Civil Air Patrol[58] and local jurisdictions at Rader's former duty stations checked into unsolved cases during Rader's time in the service.

After exhaustive investigations, none of these agencies discovered any further murders attributable to Rader, confirming early suspicions that Rader would have taken credit for any additional murders that he had committed. The ten known murders are now believed to be the only murders for which Rader is actually responsible, although Wichita police are fairly certain that Rader stalked and researched a number of other potential victims. This includes one person who was saved when Rader called off his planned attack upon his arrival near the target's home due to the presence of construction and road crews nearby. Rader stated in his police interview that "there are a lot of lucky people," meaning that he had thought about and developed various levels of murder plans for other victims.[9]

Evaluation by Robert MendozaԽմբագրել

Massachusetts psychologist Robert Mendoza was hired by Rader's court-appointed public defenders to conduct a psychological evaluation for Rader, and determine if an insanity-based defense might be viable. He conducted an interview after Rader pleaded guilty on June 27. NBC claimed Rader knew the interview might be on TV, but this was false according to the Sedgwick County Sheriff's Office. Rader mentioned the interview during his sentencing statement. On October 25, 2005, the Kansas attorney general filed a petition to sue Mendoza and Tali Waters, co-owners of Cambridge Forensic Consultants, LLC, for breach of contract, claiming that they intended to benefit financially from the use of information obtained through involvement in Rader's defense. On May 10, 2007, Mendoza settled the case for US$30,000 with no admission of wrongdoing.[59]

VictimsԽմբագրել

Name Sex Age Date of Death Place of Death Cause of Death Weapon Used
Joseph Otero M 38 January 15, 1974 803 North Edgemoor Street, Wichita Suffocated Plastic bag
Julie Otero F 33 Strangled Rope
Joseph Otero, Jr. M 9 Suffocated Plastic bag
Josephine Otero F 11 Hanged from a
drainage pipe
Rope
Kathryn Bright F 21 April 4, 1974 3217 East 13th Street North, Wichita
died at Wesley Medical Center.
Stabbed 3 times
in abdomen[60]
Knife
Shirley Vian F 24 March 17, 1977 1311 South Hydraulic Street, Wichita Strangled Rope
Nancy Fox F 25 December 8, 1977 843 South Pershing Street, Wichita Strangled Belt
Marine Hedge F 53 April 27, 1985 6254 North Independence Street,
Park City
Strangled Hand(s)
Vicki Wegerle F 28 September 16, 1986 2404 West 13th Street North, Wichita Strangled Nylon stocking
Dolores E. Davis F 62 January 19, 1991 6226 North Hillside Street, Wichita Strangled Pantyhose

In mediaԽմբագրել

Katherine Ramsland wrote Confession of a Serial Killer about Rader, compiled from her five-year correspondence with him. In the introduction, she describes the book as a "guided autobiography" of Rader, stating that she interjects only to "assist with chronology or provide substance, sense, or background."[61]

The writer Stephen King says his novella A Good Marriage, and the film based on it, was inspired by the BTK killer.[62]

The novelist Thomas Harris has said that the character of Francis Dolarhyde from his 1981 novel Red Dragon is partially based on the then-unidentified BTK Killer.[63]

A 2005 made-for-TV movie, The Hunt for the BTK Killer, told the story from the perspective of the Wichita detectives who worked the case for 31 years. Rader was played by Gregg Henry.[64]

Rader is a character in the Netflix series Mindhunter. He appears throughout season one in small vignettes set in and around Park City, Kansas (although the character is credited as "ADT serviceman", the German language dubbing credits specifically list him as "Dennis Rader").[65][66]

The story of Dennis Rader is also told in the 2008 movie B.T.K., written and directed by Michael Feifer, and starring Kane Hodder in the title role.[67]

Musician Steven Wilson wrote a song entitled "Raider II" inspired by the story of Rader on his 2011 album Grace for Drowning.[68]

The 2018 film The Clovehitch Killer is loosely based on Rader.[69]

The "Cold Case Files" podcast covered the story of the murders and eventually solving of the cold case that led to Rader's arrest in their December 5, 2017 episode called "Finding BTK."

The 2019 special "BTK: A Killer Among Us" detailed the 30-year investigation that led to the arrest of Dennis Rader. It first aired on the network Investigation Discovery (ID) on February 17, 2019.

In 2019, Rader's daughter, Kerri Rawson, released the book A Serial Killer's Daughter: My Story of Faith, Love, and Overcoming, where she wrote about growing up with her father and struggling to understand his double life as a serial killer after his arrest.[70]

See alsoԽմբագրել

ReferencesԽմբագրել

  1. Siegel Larry (January 19, 2012)։ Criminology: Theories, Patterns, and Typologies։ Cengage Learning։ էջ 353։ ISBN 1-133-71052-2։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 28, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  2. Bauer Craig P. (March 25, 2013)։ Secret History: The Story of Cryptology։ CRC Press։ էջ 17։ ISBN 978-1-4665-6186-1։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 27, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  3. Hickey Eric W. (May 10, 2012)։ Serial Murderers and their Victims։ Cengage Learning։ էջ 254։ ISBN 1-285-40168-9։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 20, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  4. 4,0 4,1 «Ancestry of Dennis Rader»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից February 5, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է September 13, 2014 
  5. 5,0 5,1 Sylvester Ron (March 14, 2007)։ «Investigators tell of grisly crimes, Rader's delight»։ The Wichita Eagle։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից February 19, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է April 21, 2019 
  6. 6,0 6,1 «A Double Life: Dennis Rader lived quietly while killing 10» (PDF)։ The Wichita Eagle։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից January 3, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  7. 7,0 7,1 7,2 7,3 7,4 King Gary C., Allen Kevin P.։ «Criminal Profile: Dennis Lynn Rader»։ Investigation Discovery։ Discovery Communications։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից December 31, 2012-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  8. 8,0 8,1 «Raders' divorce granted»։ The Wichita Eagle։ March 27, 2012։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից July 14, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  9. 9,0 9,1 Wenzl Roy, Potter Tim, Laviana Hurst, Kelly L. (May 27, 2008)։ Bind, Torture, Kill: The Inside Story of BTK, the Serial Killer Next Door։ HarperCollins։ ISBN 978-0-06-137395-4։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 29, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  10. Twiddy David (January 3, 2005)։ «BTK Suspect's Career in Security Probed»։ Associated Press։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից July 14, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 – via HighBeam Research 
  11. 11,0 11,1 11,2 McClellan Janet (May 18, 2010)։ Erotophonophilia: Investigating Lust Murder։ Cambria Press։ էջեր 157, 173։ ISBN 978-1-62196-929-7։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 29, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  12. Buselt Lori O'Toole (March 3, 2005)։ «Park City Council dismisses Rader»։ The Wichita Eagle։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից March 5, 2005-ին։ Վերցված է January 21, 2015 
  13. «Neighbor: I Watched BTK Suspect Shoot Dog»։ ABC News։ February 27, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 15, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  14. Meadows Bob, Klise Kate, Comander Lauren, Grisby Lorna, Haederle Michael (March 21, 2005)։ «The BTK Case: the Killer Unmasked?»։ People 63 (11)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 15, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014։ «The trait served Rader well in his next job, as a compliance officer for Park City, a Wichita suburb—but his nit-picking won him few friends.» 
  15. Interview with Misty King; A&E Documentary Special—The BTK Killer Speaks
  16. «People at CLC – Christ Lutheran Church – Wichita, Kansas»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից February 6, 2005-ին 
  17. «BTK killer's wife granted an emergency divorce»։ NBC News։ Associated Press։ July 27, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 14, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  18. 18,0 18,1 «Charlie Otero finds peace, stability nearly 40 years after BTK murders»։ kansas։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 1, 2018-ին։ Վերցված է July 1, 2018 
  19. «CNN.com – BTK: 'I took her to the basement and...hung her' – Jun 27, 2005»։ CNN։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 7, 2018-ին։ Վերցված է July 1, 2018 
  20. «Transcription of poem "Oh! Death to Nancy"»։ City of Wichita։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից June 3, 2006-ին։ Վերցված է August 9, 2011 
  21. 21,0 21,1 Douglas John, Dodd Johnny (November 3, 2008)։ Inside the Mind of BTK: The True Story Behind the Thirty-Year Hunt for the Notorious Wichita Serial Killer։ John Wiley & Sons։ էջ 83։ ISBN 978-0-470-43768-1։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 24, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  22. Bardsley Marilyn, Bell Rachael, Lohr David։ «The BTK Story – More Clues Revealed»։ Crime Library։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից May 29, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է May 25, 2008 
  23. «BTK took body to church, says investigator»։ Atlanta, Georgia: CNN։ August 18, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից August 2, 2018-ին։ Վերցված է February 20, 2019 
  24. 24,0 24,1 A&E Documentary Special – The BTK Killer Speaks
  25. Geberth Vernon։ Sex-Related Homicide and Death Investigation: Practical and Clinical Perspectives։ էջ 628։ ISBN 978-1-4398-2656-0 
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  27. «'BTK' serial killer caught»։ The Age։ February 27, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից May 28, 2012-ին։ Վերցված է October 17, 2011 
  28. «Police destroy 1,326 DNA samples taken in BTK investigation»։ USA Today։ May 31, 2006։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից June 16, 2009-ին։ Վերցված է May 1, 2010 
  29. Singular Stephen (March 27, 2007)։ Unholy Messenger: The Life and Crimes of the BTK Serial Killer։ Simon & Schuster։ էջեր 115–116։ ISBN 978-1-4165-3154-8։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 24, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  30. 30,0 30,1 Potter Tim (July 10, 2005)։ «After 31 years and 10 deaths pieces fall in place»։ The Wichita Eagle։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 29, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է January 21, 2015 
  31. Girard James E. (November 15, 2013)։ Criminalistics: Forensic Science, Crime, and Terrorism։ Jones & Bartlett Publishers։ էջ 417։ ISBN 978-1-4496-9180-6։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 18, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  32. 32,0 32,1 «Cops Make Arrest in BTK Probe»։ Fox News Channel։ February 27, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 15, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  33. 33,0 33,1 «Camp novel crops up in the BTK case»։ johnsandford.org, attributed to "StarTribune"։ March 3, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից May 9, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  34. Girard James E. (November 15, 2013)։ Criminalistics: Forensic Science, Crime, and Terrorism։ Jones & Bartlett Publishers։ էջ 417։ ISBN 978-1-4496-9180-6։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 18, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է January 21, 2015 
  35. BTK Kansas Serial Killer – Full BTK Story – The Crime library Archived June 15, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  36. Potter Tim (March 14, 2007)։ «Police tell details of BTK hunt»։ The Wichita Eagle։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից November 12, 2012-ին։ Վերցված է June 1, 2012 
  37. «Policeman details capture of BTK killer»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 29, 2013-ին։ Վերցված է September 13, 2014 
  38. Nakashima Ellen (April 21, 2008)։ «From DNA of Family, a Tool to Make Arrests»։ The Washington Post։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 4, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է January 21, 2015 
  39. Nye Valerie, Barco Kathy (2012)։ True Stories of Censorship Battles in America's Libraries։ American Library Association։ էջ 133։ ISBN 978-0-8389-1130-3։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 24, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  40. Magnus Edie (August 24, 2005)։ «31 years of the BTK killer»։ MSNBC։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից October 26, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է October 19, 2015 
  41. Fox James Alan, Levin Jack (March 14, 2011)։ Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder։ Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications։ էջ 11։ ISBN 978-1-4129-8031-9։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից July 20, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է July 11, 2014 
  42. «CNN.com – Report: Daughter of BTK suspect alerted police – Apr 19, 2005»։ CNN։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից September 24, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է October 19, 2015 
  43. Samuelson Andy (February 27, 2005)։ «Wichita police: 'BTK is arrested'»։ Lawrence Journal-World (Lawrence, Kansas: Ogden Newspapers Inc.)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից May 22, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  44. «BTK Serial Killer Suspect's Charges – State of Kansas v. Dennis Rader (page 6)»։ findlaw.com։ February 28, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից April 16, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  45. «'BTK' Serial Killer in Custody, Claims Police»։ St. Petersburg Times։ March 1, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից April 9, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  46. «BTK Suspect Said to Confess to 6 Slayings»։ USA Today (AP)։ February 27, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից May 27, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  47. Finger Stan, Potter Tim (March 6, 2005)։ «Rader has admitted to killings, daily says»։ Deseret News (Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret News Company)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից January 8, 2009-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  48. «Victim's brother describes killing linked to BTK»։ CNN։ March 2, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից October 10, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  49. Strongin Dana, Laviana Hurst (May 5, 2005)։ «Families of BTK victims prepare to wait»։ Wichita Eagle (Wichita, Kansas)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից March 21, 2018-ին։ Վերցված է March 20, 2018 
  50. «Anger, Relief Over BTK Confessions»։ CBS News։ June 28, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից September 6, 2008-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  51. Hansen Mark (April 21, 2006)։ «How the Cops Caught BTK»։ ABA Journal (American Bar AssociationԱրխիվացված օրիգինալից January 21, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է January 21, 2015 
  52. «US Serial Killer pleads guilty to ten murders»։ The World Today։ June 28, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից February 10, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է January 21, 2015 
  53. 53,0 53,1 «BTK killer sentenced to 10 consecutive life terms»։ WHO-TV (AP)։ August 19, 2005։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից August 9, 2007-ին։ Վերցված է August 7, 2007 
  54. "For most people, emotional words and scenes lead to heightened activity in the amygdala as the emotional sense of the situation overcomes them, often shutting down higher functions. For psychopaths, the amygdala responds less powerfully to the same items and when it does respond it does so in step with higher cortical activity. The cortex is the brain area associated with rational thought and interpretive functions. So, psychopaths presented with an emotional stimulus have to think about its meaning and rationally make sense of it in order to parse their response. They do not feel the effects of others' fear, sadness, or pain, so they have to work to interpret their environment.
    "This characteristic appears clearly in the allocution of Dennis Rader, the BTK Killer. Standing in court before the judge, the victims' families, and the assembled press, Rader listened as the judge read out the details of his offenses. Without blinking an eye, Rader stopped the judge at several junctures to correct some minor detail. Unmoved by the enormity of his crimes or the responses of the people gathered there, Rader makes almost casual responses to the facts in the case; at one point making mouth noises as he sought a precise fact. This is a man who cannot even begin to appreciate the impact he had on others." Richard M. Gray 2010). Psychopathy and the Will to Power: Ted Bundy and Dennis Rader. In S. Waller (Ed.), Serial Killers and Philosophy, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing
  55. Coates Sam (August 19, 2005)։ «Rader Gets 175 Years For BTK Slayings»։ The Washington Post (Washington, DC: Nash Holdings, Inc.)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից October 24, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է February 20, 2009 
  56. 56,0 56,1 «Dennis Rader's listing on the Kansas Department of Corrections Kansas Adult Supervised Population Electronic Repository site»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից-ից November 25, 2007-ին։ Վերցված է June 2, 2008 
  57. Vries Lloyd (April 24, 2006)։ «BTK Killer Gets Extra Jail Perks»։ CBS News։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից October 25, 2012-ին։ Վերցված է March 20, 2018 
  58. Beattie Robert (2005)։ Nightmare in Wichita: The Hunt for the BTK Strangler։ London, England: Penguin Books։ էջ 138։ ISBN 978-1-101-21992-8։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից January 7, 2014-ին։ Վերցված է January 12, 2013 
  59. «BTK Psychologist to Pay State»։ WIBW։ Associated Press։ May 10, 2007։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից February 11, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է February 10, 2015 
  60. Dangelo Adrian (November 12, 2014)։ Robert Beattie Nightmare in Wichita: The Hunt for the BTK Strangler։ էջ 47։ Վերցված է January 19, 2019 
  61. Ramsland Katherine M. (2016)։ Confession of a serial killer: the untold story of Dennis Rader, the BTK killer։ ForeEdge։ էջ 1։ ISBN 978-1-61168-841-2։ OCLC 945648889 
  62. Wenzl Roy (September 26, 2014)։ «Daughter of Wichita serial killer BTK: Stephen King 'exploiting my father's 10 victims'»։ Kansas City Star (Kansas City, Missouri)։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից March 17, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է March 17, 2015 
  63. Beattie Robert (2005)։ Nightmare in Wichita։ Penguin Books 
  64. Կաղապար:Cite article
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  66. Կաղապար:Cite article
  67. «B.T.K»։ IMDb։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից December 9, 2017-ին։ Վերցված է November 22, 2018 
  68. «The Raven that Refused to Sing – Concert Review»։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից October 9, 2015-ին։ Վերցված է April 10, 2015 
  69. «Is 'The Clovehitch Killer' based on real events?»։ metro.us։ Արխիվացված օրիգինալից January 8, 2019-ին։ Վերցված է January 7, 2019 
  70. Rawson Kerri (2019)։ A Serial Killer's Daughter: My Story of Faith, Love, and Overcoming։ Thomas Nelson 

Further readingԽմբագրել

  • Beattie, Robert. Nightmare in Wichita: The Hunt for the BTK Strangler. New American Library, 2005. 0-451-21738-1.
  • Davis, Jeffrey M. The Shadow of Evil: Where Is God in a Violent World?. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1996. 0-7872-1981-9. (Davis is the son of BTK victim Dolores Davis.)
  • Douglas, John E. Inside the Mind of BTK: The True Story Behind Thirty Years of Hunting for the Wichita Serial Killer. Jossey Bass Wiley, 2007. 978-0-7879-8484-7.
  • Singular, Stephen. Unholy Messenger: The Life and Crimes of the BTK Serial Killer. Scribner Book Company, 2006. 1-4001-5252-6.
  • Smith, Carlton. The BTK Murders: Inside the "Bind Torture Kill" Case that Terrified America's Heartland. St. Martin's True Crime, 2006. 0-312-93905-1.
  • Wenzl, Roy; Potter, Tim; Laviana, Hurst; Kelly, L. Bind, Torture, Kill: The Inside Story of the Serial Killer Next Door. HC an imprint of HarperCollins, 2007. 978-0-06-124650-0.
  • Welch, Larry. Beyond Cold Blood: The KBI from Ma Barker to BTK. University Press of Kansas, 2012. 978-0700618859.

External linksԽմբագրել