«Մասնակից:Ռիմա Մանասերյան/Ավազարկղ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
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== Պարտավորությունների և պարտքային շուկաները ==
{{further|Corporate debt bubble}}Մինչ կորոնավիրուսային համավարակը, ընկերությունների կողմից ներգրավվող փոխառությունները զուգորդվում էին նաև հետզհետե աճող վարկերով, ինչը ընկերություններին բերեց պարտավորությունների մեծ ծավալի և ստեղծց ֆինանսական համակարգի անկայունություն:
{{further|Corporate debt bubble}}Prior to the coronavirus pandemic, a massive amount of borrowing by firms with ratings just above "[[High-yield debt|junk]]", coupled with the growth of leveraged loans, which are made to companies with significant amount of debt, created a vulnerability in the financial system. The collapse of this [[corporate debt bubble]] would potentially endanger the solvency of firms, potentially worsening the next [[recession]]. In January, new U.S. corporate debt fell 10% from the previous year, potentially indicating more caution from investors.<ref name="WaPo100320">{{cite web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/03/10/coronavirus-markets-economy-corporate-debt/|title=Fears of corporate debt bomb grow as coronavirus outbreak worsens|last1=Lynch|first1=David J.|date=10 March 2020|website=The Washington Post|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200311001048/https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/03/10/coronavirus-markets-economy-corporate-debt/|archive-date=11 March 2020|access-date=11 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> As the economic impact of the coronavirus began to be felt, numerous financial news sources warned of the potential cascade of impacts upon the outstanding $10&nbsp;trillion in corporate debt.<ref name="AP_120320">{{cite web|url=https://apnews.com/7cd0108d79c6b4f1ee2e6ec5fc3a2275|title=Corporate debt loads a rising risk as virus hits economy|last1=Wiseman|first1=Paul|last2=Condon|first2=Bernard|date=11 March 2020|website=AP News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312050042/https://apnews.com/7cd0108d79c6b4f1ee2e6ec5fc3a2275|archive-date=12 March 2020|last3=Bussewitz|first3=Cathy|access-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.msn.com/en-gb/finance/other/the-c2-a315trillion-corporate-debt-time-bomb-global-economy-at-risk-from-the-bond-market-as-virus-spreads/ar-BB110Qnj|title=The £15trillion corporate debt time bomb: Global economy at risk from the bond market as virus spreads|last1=Oliver|first1=Matt|date=10 March 2020|publisher=MSN|access-date=11 March 2020}}</ref> Between mid-February and early March, investors increased the premium, or additional yield, to hold junk bonds by four times the premium demanded of higher credit lenders, indicating increased wariness.<ref name="WaPo100320" />
 
{{further|Corporate debt bubble}}Prior to the coronavirus pandemic, a massive amount of borrowing by firms with ratings just above "[[High-yield debt|junk]]", coupled with the growth of leveraged loans, which are made to companies with significant amount of debt, created a vulnerability in the financial system. The collapse of this [[corporate debt bubble]] would potentially endanger the solvency of firms, potentially worsening the next [[recession]]. In January, new U.S. corporate debt fell 10% from the previous year, potentially indicating more caution from investors.<ref name="WaPo100320">{{cite web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/03/10/coronavirus-markets-economy-corporate-debt/|title=Fears of corporate debt bomb grow as coronavirus outbreak worsens|last1=Lynch|first1=David J.|date=10 March 2020|website=The Washington Post|language=en|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200311001048/https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/03/10/coronavirus-markets-economy-corporate-debt/|archive-date=11 March 2020|access-date=11 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> As the economic impact of the coronavirus began to be felt, numerous financial news sources warned of the potential cascade of impacts upon the outstanding $10&nbsp;trillion in corporate debt.<ref name="AP_120320">{{cite web|url=https://apnews.com/7cd0108d79c6b4f1ee2e6ec5fc3a2275|title=Corporate debt loads a rising risk as virus hits economy|last1=Wiseman|first1=Paul|last2=Condon|first2=Bernard|date=11 March 2020|website=AP News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312050042/https://apnews.com/7cd0108d79c6b4f1ee2e6ec5fc3a2275|archive-date=12 March 2020|last3=Bussewitz|first3=Cathy|access-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.msn.com/en-gb/finance/other/the-c2-a315trillion-corporate-debt-time-bomb-global-economy-at-risk-from-the-bond-market-as-virus-spreads/ar-BB110Qnj|title=The £15trillion corporate debt time bomb: Global economy at risk from the bond market as virus spreads|last1=Oliver|first1=Matt|date=10 March 2020|publisher=MSN|access-date=11 March 2020}}</ref> Between mid-February and early March, investors increased the premium, or additional yield, to hold junk bonds by four times the premium demanded of higher credit lenders, indicating increased wariness.<ref name="WaPo100320" />
 
During the [[2020 stock market crash]] that began the week of 9 March, bond prices unexpectedly moved in the same direction as stock prices. Bonds are generally considered safer than stocks, so confident investors will sell bonds to buy stocks and cautious investors will sell stocks to buy bonds. Along with the unexpected movement of bonds in concert with stocks, bond desks reported that it had become difficult to trade many different types of bonds, including [[Municipal bond|municipal bonds]], [[Corporate bond|corporate bonds]], and even U.S. [[Treasury bond|Treasury bonds]]. ''[[The New York Times]]'' opined that this, coupled with the fall in gold futures, indicated that major investors were experiencing a cash crunch and were attempting to sell any asset they could.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/12/upshot/markets-weird-coronavirus.html|title=Something Weird Is Happening on Wall Street, and Not Just the Stock Sell-Off|last1=Irwin|first1=Neil|date=12 March 2020|website=The New York Times|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312235458/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/12/upshot/markets-weird-coronavirus.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|access-date=13 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> As big investors sought to sell, the spread between the prices sellers and buyers wanted has widened. As banks were unable to sell the bonds they were holding, they also stopped buying bonds. As the number of traders fell, the few trades remaining wildly swung the bond prices. [[Market depth]] in Treasuries, a measure of liquidity, fell to its lowest level since the 2008 crisis.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/12/business/economy/wall-street-funding-troubles-fed.html|title=Troubles Percolate in the Plumbing of Wall Street|last1=Smialek|first1=Jeanna|last2=Phillips|first2=Matt|date=12 March 2020|website=The New York Times|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200314194742/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/12/business/economy/wall-street-funding-troubles-fed.html|archive-date=14 March 2020|access-date=15 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Over the week of 9 March, investors pulled a weekly record of $15.9&nbsp;billion from investment-grade bond funds, as well as $11.2&nbsp;billion from high-yield bond funds, the second-highest on record.<ref name="MarketWatch_130320">{{cite web|url=https://www.marketwatch.com/story/wall-street-fear-flashbacks-to-2008-of-forced-selling-in-9-trillion-us-corporate-bond-market-2020-03-14|title=Wall Street fears 'flashbacks to 2008' with forced selling in $9 trillion U.S. corporate bond market|last1=Oh|first1=Sunny|date=14 March 2020|website=MarketWatch|access-date=15 March 2020}}</ref> Also, prices for bond exchange-traded funds began dropping below their net asset values.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.morningstar.com/articles/976094/are-bond-funds-broken-as-diversifiers|title=Are Bond Funds 'Broken' as Diversifiers?|last=Benz|first=Christine|date=2 April 2020|website=Morningstar.com|access-date=19 May 2020}}</ref>