«Մասնակից:Avagyanasya/Ավազարկղ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
(Ջնջվում է էջի ամբողջ պարունակությունը)
Պիտակ: Դատարկում
{{Short description|Dynasty of Egypt}}
{{Infobox Former Country|conventional_long_name=Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt|era=Bronze Age|government_type=[[Absolute monarchy]]|nation=|image_map=CairoEgMuseumTaaMaskMostlyPhotographed.jpg|image_map_caption=Funeral mask of [[Tutankhamun]]|image_flag=|flag=|flag_type=|year_start=1550 BC|year_end=1290 BC|p1=Fifteenth Dynasty of Egypt|flag_p1=|p2=Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt|s1=Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt|flag_s1=|capital=[[Thebes, Egypt|Thebes]], [[Akhetaten]]|common_languages=[[Egyptian language]]|religion=[[Ancient Egyptian religion|Ancient Egyptian Religion]] <br> [[Atenism]]|event_start=|event_end=}}{{Egyptian Dynasty list}}
The '''Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt''' (notated '''Dynasty XVIII''', alternatively '''18th Dynasty''' or '''Dynasty 18''') is classified as the first dynasty of the [[New Kingdom of Egypt]], the era in which [[ancient Egypt]] achieved the peak of its power. The Eighteenth Dynasty spanned the period from 1550/1549 to 1292 BC. This dynasty is also known as the '''Thutmosid Dynasty''' for the four pharaohs named [[Thutmose]].
 
Several of Egypt's most famous [[pharaoh]]s were from the Eighteenth Dynasty, including [[Tutankhamun]], whose tomb was found by [[Howard Carter]] in 1922. Other famous pharaohs of the dynasty include [[Hatshepsut]] (c. 1479 BC–1458 BC), the longest-reigning woman pharaoh of an indigenous dynasty, and [[Akhenaten]] (c. 1353–1336 BC), the "heretic pharaoh", with his [[Great Royal Wife]], [[Nefertiti]].
The Eighteenth Dynasty is unique among Egyptian dynasties in that it had two women who ruled as sole pharaoh: [[Hatshepsut]], who is regarded as one of the most innovative rulers of ancient Egypt, and [[Neferneferuaten]], usually identified as [[Nefertiti]].<ref>{{Citation|last=Daniel Molinari|title=Egypts Lost Queens|date=2014-09-16|url=https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmFM-rPerL4|access-date=2017-11-14}}</ref>
 
== History ==
 
=== Early Dynasty XVIII ===
[[File:Ahmes Nefertari Grab 10.JPG|thumb|left|Ahmose-Nefertari. [[Ahmose-Nefertari]] was the daughter of [[Seqenenre Tao II]], a 17th dynasty king who rose up against the [[Hyksos]]. Her brother Ahmose, expelled the Hyksos, and she became queen of a united Egypt. She was deified after she died.]]
[[File:Head of an Early Eighteenth Dynasty King, ca. 1539-1493 B.C.E.,37.38E.jpg|thumbnail|Head of an Early Eighteenth Dynasty King, c. 1539–1493 BC, 37.38E, [[Brooklyn Museum]]]]
Dynasty XVIII was founded by [[Ahmose I]], the brother or son of [[Kamose]], the last ruler of the [[Seventeenth Dynasty of Egypt|17th Dynasty]]. Ahmose finished the campaign to expel the [[Hyksos]] rulers. His reign is seen as the end of the [[Second Intermediate Period of Egypt|Second Intermediate Period]] and the start of the New Kingdom. Ahmose's consort, Queen [[Ahmose-Nefertari]] was "arguably the most venerated woman in Egyptian history, and the grandmother of the 18th Dynasty."<ref name="gestoso">Graciela Gestoso Singer, "[https://www.academia.edu/414029/Ahmose_Nefertari_the_Woman_in_Black Ahmose-Nefertari, The Woman in Black]". ''Terrae Antiqvae'', January 17, 2011</ref> She was deified after she died. Ahmose was succeeded by his son, [[Amenhotep I]], whose reign was relatively uneventful.<ref>Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: pg 122</ref>
 
Amenhotep I probably left no male heir and the next pharaoh, [[Thutmose I]], seems to have been related to the royal family through marriage. During his reign the borders of Egypt's empire reached their greatest expanse, extending in the north to [[Carchemish]] on the [[Euphrates]] and in the south up to Kurgus beyond the fourth [[Cataracts of the Nile|cataract]] of the Nile. Thutmose I was succeeded by [[Thutmose II]] and his queen, [[Hatshepsut]], who was the daughter of Thutmose I. After her husband's death and a period of regency for her minor stepson (who would later become pharaoh as Thutmose III) Hatshepsut became pharaoh in her own right and ruled for over twenty years.
 
[[Thutmose III]], who became known as the greatest military pharaoh ever, also had a lengthy reign after becoming pharaoh. He had a second co-regency in his old age with his son [[Amenhotep II]]. Amenhotep II was succeeded by [[Thutmose IV]], who in his turn was followed by his son [[Amenhotep III]], whose reign is seen as a high point in this dynasty.
 
Amenhotep III's reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity, artistic splendor, and international power, as attested by over 250 statues (more than any other pharaoh) and 200 large stone scarabs discovered from Syria to Nubia.{{sfn|O'Connor|Cline|1998|pp=11–12}} Amenhotep III undertook large scale building programmes, the extent of which can only be compared with those of the much longer reign of [[Ramesses II]] during Dynasty XIX.<ref>Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: pg 130</ref> Amenhotep III's consort was the Great Royal wife [[Tiye]], for whom he built an artificial lake, as described on eleven scarabs.{{sfn|Kozloff|Bryan|1992|loc=no. 2}}
 
=== Akhenaten, the Amarna Period, and Tutankhamun ===
{{main|Amarna Period}}
[[Image:Aten.svg|325px|thumb|<center>The [[Aten]], <hiero>i-t:n-ra</hiero></center>]]
[[Image:La salle dAkhenaton (1356-1340 av J.C.) (Musée du Caire) (2076972086).jpg|thumb|[[Akhenaten]] and his family adoring the [[Aten]]. Second from the left is [[Meritaten]], daughter of Akhenaten.]]
Amenhotep III may have shared the throne for up to twelve years with his son Amenhotep IV. There is much debate about this proposed co-regency, with different experts considering that there was a lengthy co-regency, a short one, or none at all.
 
In the fifth year of his reign, Amenhotep IV changed his name to [[Akhenaten]] ({{lang|egy|[[wikt:ꜣḫ-n-jtn|ꜣḫ-n-jtn]]}}, "Effective for the [[Aten]]") and moved his capital to [[Amarna]], which he named Akhetaten. During the reign of Akhenaten, the [[Aten]] ([[wikt:jtn|jtn]], the sun disk) became, first, the most prominent deity, and eventually came to be considered the only god.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Dodson|first1=Aidan|author-link1=Aidan Dodson|last2=Hilton|first2=Dyan|title=The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ONKiQAAACAAJ&pg=PA142|year=2010|publisher=Thames & Hudson|isbn=978-0-500-28857-3|page=142}}</ref> Whether this amounted to true monotheism continues to be the subject of debate within the academic community. Some state that Akhenaten created a monotheism, while others point out that he merely suppressed a dominant solar cult by the assertion of another, while he never completely abandoned several other traditional deities.
 
Later Egyptians considered this "[[Amarna Period]]" an unfortunate aberration. After his death, Akhenaten was succeeded by two short-lived pharaohs, [[Smenkhkare]] and [[Neferneferuaten]], of which little is known. In 1334 Akhenaten's son, Tutankhaten, ascended to the throne: shortly after, he restored Egyptian polytheist cult and subsequently changed his name in [[Tutankhamun]], in honor to the Egyptian god [[Amun]].<ref name="DH-143">{{cite book|last1=Dodson|first1=Aidan|author-link1=Aidan Dodson|last2=Hilton|first2=Dyan|title=The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ONKiQAAACAAJ&pg=PA143|year=2010|publisher=Thames & Hudson|isbn=978-0-500-28857-3|page=143}}</ref> His infant daughters, [[317a and 317b mummies]], represent the final genetically-related generation of the Eighteenth Dynasty.
 
=== Ay and Horemheb ===
[[File:Block Statue of Ay, ca. 1336-1327 B.C.E. 66.174.1.jpg|thumbnail|Block Statue of Ay, c. 1336–1327 BC, 66.174.1, [[Brooklyn Museum]]]]
The last two members of the Eighteenth Dynasty—[[Ay]] and [[Horemheb]]—became rulers from the ranks of officials in the royal court, although Ay might also have been the maternal uncle of Akhenaten as a fellow descendant of [[Yuya]] and [[Tjuyu]].
 
Ay may have married the widowed Great Royal Wife and young half-sister of Tutankhamun, [[Ankhesenamun]], in order to obtain power; she did not live long afterward. Ay then married [[Tey]], who was originally Nefertiti's wet-nurse.
 
Ay's reign was short. His successor was Horemheb, a general during Tutankhamun's reign whom the pharaoh may have intended as his successor in the event that he had no surviving children, which came to pass.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Gardiner|first=Alan|date=1953|title=The Coronation of King Haremhab|journal=Journal of Egyptian Archaeology|volume=39|pages=13–31}}</ref> Horemheb may have taken the throne away from Ay in a [[coup d'état]]. Although Ay's son or stepson [[Nakhtmin]] was named as his father/stepfather's Crown Prince, Nakhtmin seems to have died during the reign of Ay, leaving the opportunity for Horemheb to claim the throne next.
 
Horemheb also died without surviving children, having appointed his vizier, Pa-ra-mes-su, as his heir. This vizier ascended the throne in 1292 BC as [[Ramesses I]], and was the first pharaoh of the [[Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt|Nineteenth Dynasty]].
 
This example to the right depicts a man named Ay who achieved the exalted religious positions of [[Second Prophet of Amun]] and High Priest of [[Mut]] at [[Thebes, Egypt|Thebes]]. His career flourished during the reign of Tutankhamun, when the statue was made. The cartouches of King Ay, Tutankhamun's successor appearing on the statue, were an attempt by an artisan to "update" the sculpture.<ref>{{cite web|title=Block Statue of Ay|website=brooklynmuseum.org |url=http://www.brooklynmuseum.org/opencollection/objects/3752/Block_Statue_of_Ay#|access-date=17 June 2014}}</ref>
 
===Relations with Nubia===
The Eighteenth Dynasty empire conquered all of Lower [[Nubia]] under [[Thutmose I]].<ref name="OConnor">{{cite book |last1=O'Connor |first1=David |title=Ancient Nubia: Egypt's Rival in Africa |date=1993 |publisher=University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology |location=University of Pennsylvania, USA |isbn=0924171286 |pages=60–69}}</ref> By the reign of [[Thutmose III]], the Egyptians controlled Nubia to the Nile river, 4th cataract (rapids). The Egyptians referred to the area as [[Kingdom of Kush|Kush]] and it was administered by the [[Viceroy of Kush]]. The 18th dynasty obtained Nubian gold, animal skins, ivory, ebony, cattle, and horses, which were of exceptional quality.<ref name="OConnor" /> The Egyptians built temples throughout Nubia. One of the largest and most important temples was dedicated to amun at [[Jebel Barkal]] in the city of Napata. This [[Temple of Amun, Jebel Barkal|Temple of Amun]] was enlarged by later Egyptian and Nubian Pharaohs, such as [[Taharqa]].
<gallery widths="200" heights="200" perrow="4">
File:Nubian Tribute Presented to the King, Tomb of Huy MET DT221112.jpg|Nubian Tribute Presented to the King, [[TT40|Tomb of Huy]] MET DT221112
File:Nubian Prince Hekanefer bringing tribute for King Tut, 18th dynasty, Tomb of Huy.jpg|Nubian Prince [[Heqanefer]] bringing tribute for King Tut, 18th dynasty, Tomb of Huy
File:Nubians bringing tribute for King Tut, Tomb of Huy.jpg|Nubians bringing tribute for King Tut, Tomb of Huy
</gallery>
 
===Relations with the Near-East===
After the end of the [[Hyksos]] period of foreign rule, the Eighteenth Dynasty engaged in a vigorous phase of expansionism, conquering vast areas of the [[Near-East]], with especially Pharaoh [[Thutmose III]] submitting the "Shasu" Bedouins of northern [[Canaan]], and the land of [[Retjenu]], as far as [[Syria]] and [[Mittani]] in numerous military campaigns circa 1450 BC.<ref>{{cite book |last1=Gabriel |first1=Richard A. |title=Thutmose III: The Military Biography of Egypt's Greatest Warrior King |date=2009 |publisher=Potomac Books, Inc. |isbn=978-1-59797-373-1 |page=204 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jCKU6fA8nZIC&pg=PT204 |language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Allen |first1=James P. |title=Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs |date=2000 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=978-0-521-77483-3 |page=299 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=gMxfheT1XQIC&pg=PA299 |language=en}}</ref>
<gallery widths="200" heights="200" perrow="4">
File:Block from a Relief Depicting a Battle MET 213 S3BR2 01GG.jpg|Egyptian relief depicting a battle against West Asiatics. Reign of [[Amenhotep II]], Eighteenth Dynasty, c. 1427–1400 BC.
File:West Asiatic tribute bearers tomb of Sobekhotep 18th Dynasty Thebes.jpg|West Asiatic tribute bearers in the tomb of [[Sobekhotep (New Kingdom treasurer)|Sobekhotep]], c. 1400 BC, Thebes. [[British Museum]].<ref>{{cite web|title=Tomb-painting British Museum|url=https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/Y_EA37991|website=The British Museum|language=en}}</ref>
</gallery>
 
==Dating==
[[Radiocarbon dating]] suggests that Dynasty XVIII may have started a few years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 BC. The radiocarbon date range for its beginning is 1570–1544 BC, the mean point of which is 1557 BC.<ref>{{Cite journal|doi=10.1126/science.1189395|title=Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt|year=2010|last1=Ramsey|first1=C. B.|last2=Dee|first2=M. W.|last3=Rowland|first3=J. M.|last4=Higham|first4=T. F. G.|last5=Harris|first5=S. A.|last6=Brock|first6=F.|last7=Quiles|first7=A.|last8=Wild|first8=E. M.|last9=Marcus|first9=E. S.|last10=Shortland|first10=A. J.|journal=Science|volume=328|issue=5985|pages=1554–1557|pmid=20558717|s2cid=206526496}}</ref>
 
==Pharaohs of the 18th Dynasty==
{{main|List of pharaohs#Eighteenth dynasty}}
{{See also|Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree}}
 
The pharaohs of Dynasty XVIII ruled for approximately 250 years (c. 1550–1298 BC). The dates and names in the table are taken from Dodson and Hilton.<ref>Aidan Dodson, Dyan Hilton: ''The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt''. The American University in Cairo Press, London 2004</ref> Many of the pharaohs were buried in the [[Valley of the Kings]] in Thebes (designated KV). More information can be found on the Theban Mapping Project website.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/ |title=Sites in the Valley of the Kings |website=Theban Mapping Project |date=2010 |access-date=24 November 2018 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100725081817/http://www.thebanmappingproject.com/sites/ |archive-date=25 July 2010 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Several diplomatic marriages are known for the [[New Kingdom]]. These daughters of foreign kings are often only mentioned in cuneiform texts and are not known from other sources. The marriages were likely to have been a way to confirm good relations between these states.<ref name="WG">Grajetzki, ''Ancient Egyptian Queens: A Hieroglyphic Dictionary'', Golden House Publications, London, 2005, {{ISBN|978-0954721893}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable" align="center" style="margin: 1em auto 1em auto; width: 80%" |
!|Pharaoh
!Image!! |[[Prenomen (Ancient Egypt)|Throne name]] / Prenomen!! align="center" |Reign!! |Burial !! |Consort(s)
!Comments
|-
| [[Ahmose I]] / Ahmosis I
|[[File:Pharaoh Ahmose I slaying a Hyksos (axe of Ahmose I, from the Treasure of Queen Aahhotep II) Colorized per source.jpg|100px]]|| Nebpehtire || 1549–1524 BC || || [[Ahmose-Nefertari]] <br> [[Ahmose-Henuttamehu]] <br> [[Ahmose-Sitkamose]]
|
|-
| [[Amenhotep I]]
|[[File:58 I Amenhotep I.jpg|154x154px]]|| Djeserkare || 1524–1503 BC || [[KV39]]? or [[Tomb ANB]]? || [[Ahmose-Meritamon]]
|
|-
| [[Thutmose I]]
|[[File:ColossalSandstoneHeadOfThutmoseI-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg|130x130px]]|| Aakheperkare || 1503–1493 BC || [[KV20]], [[KV38]] || [[Ahmose (queen)|Ahmose]] <br> [[Mutnofret]]
|
|-
| [[Thutmose II]]
|[[File:Stone block with relief at Karnak Temple Thutmosis II.jpg|frameless|100x100px]]|| Aakheperenre || 1493–1479 BC || [[KV42]]? || [[Hatshepsut]] <br> [[Iset (queen)|Iset]]
|
|-
| [[Hatshepsut]]
|[[File:Hatshepsut.jpg|121x121px]]|| Maatkare || 1479–1458 BC || [[KV20]] || [[Thutmose II]]
|
|-
| [[Thutmose III]]
|[[File:TuthmosisIII-2.JPG|150x150px]]|| Menkheper(en)re || 1479–1425 BC || [[KV34]] || [[Satiah]] <br> [[Merytre-Hatshepsut]]<br> [[Nebtu]] <br> [[Menhet, Menwi and Merti]]
|
|-
| [[Amenhotep II]]
|[[File:Amenophis II-E 10896-IMG 0085-gradient.jpg|111x111px]]|| Aakheperure || 1427–1397 BC || [[KV35]] || [[Tiaa]]
|
|-
| [[Thutmose IV]]
|[[File:Thumtmoses IV-E 13889-Louvre Museum (7465530452).jpg|100x100px]]|| Menkheperure || 1397–1388 BC || [[KV43]] || [[Nefertari (18th dynasty)|Nefertari]] <br> [[Iaret]] <br> [[Mutemwiya]] <br> Daughter of [[Artatama I]] of Mitanni
|
|-
| [[Amenhotep III]]
|[[File:Amenhotep iii british museum.jpg|133x133px]]|| Nebmaatre || 1388–1351 BC || [[KV22]] || [[Tiye]]<br> [[Gilukhipa]] of Mitanni<br> [[Tadukhipa]] of Mitanni<br> [[Sitamun]]<br> [[Iset (daughter of Amenhotep III)|Iset]]<br> Daughter of [[Kurigalzu I]] of Babylon<ref name="WG" /><br> Daughter of [[Kadashman-Enlil]] of Babylon<ref name="WG" /><br> Daughter of [[Tarhundaradu]] of [[Arzawa]]<ref name="WG" /><br> Daughter of the ruler of Ammia<ref name="WG" />
|
|-
| [[Akhenaten|Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten]]
|[[File:GD-EG-Caire-Musée061.JPG|frameless|133x133px]]|| Neferkepherure-Waenre || 1351–1334 BC || [[Royal Tomb of Akhenaten]] || [[Nefertiti]] <br> [[Kiya]] <br> [[Tadukhipa]] of Mitanni <br> Daughter of [[Šatiya]], ruler of [[Enišasi]]<ref name="WG" /> <br> [[Meritaten]]? <br> [[Meketaten]]? <br> [[Ankhesenamun]]<br> Daughter of [[Burna-Buriash II]], King of Babylon<ref name="WG" />
|
|-
| [[Smenkhkare]]
|[[File:Spaziergang im Garten Amarna Berlin.jpg|120x120px]]|| Ankhkheperure || 1335–1334 BC || || [[Meritaten]]
|
|-
| [[Neferneferuaten]]
|[[File:NefertitiRelief SmitingSceneOnBoat-CloseUp.png|frameless|113x113px]]
 
| Ankhkheperure || 1334–1332 BC || || [[Akhenaten]]? <br> [[Smenkhkare]]?
|Usually identified as Queen [[Nefertiti]]
|-
| [[Tutankhamun]]
|[[File:CairoEgMuseumTaaMaskMostlyPhotographed.jpg|133x133px]]|| Nebkheperure || 1332–1323 BC || [[KV62]] || [[Ankhesenamun]]
|
|-
| [[Ay]]
|[[File:Opening of the Mouth - Tutankhamun and Aja-2.jpg|185x185px]]|| Kheperkheperure || 1323–1319 BC || [[KV23]] || [[Ankhesenamun]] <br> [[Tey]]
|
|-
| [[Horemheb]]
|[[File:StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb01 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg|134x134px]]|| Djeserkheperure-Setepenre || 1319–1292 BC || [[KV57]] || [[Mutnedjmet]] <br> [[Amenia (wife of Horemheb)|Amenia]]
|
|}
 
==Timeline of the 18th Dynasty==
<timeline>
ImageSize = width:800 height:auto barincrement:12
PlotArea = top:10 bottom:30 right:130 left:20
AlignBars = justify
 
DateFormat = yyyy
Period = from:-1550 till:-1285
TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal
ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:100 start:-1550
ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:10 start:-1550
 
Colors =
id:canvas value:rgb(0.97,0.97,0.97)
id:PA value:green
id:GP value:red
id:eon value:rgb(1,0.7,1) # light purple
 
Backgroundcolors = canvas:canvas
 
BarData =
barset:Rulers
 
PlotData=
width:5 align:left fontsize:S shift:(5,-4) anchor:till
barset:Rulers
 
from: -1550 till: -1525 color:PA text:"[[Ahmose I]] (1550–1525 BC)"
from: -1525 till: -1504 color:PA text:"[[Amenhotep I]] (1525–1504 BC)"
from: -1504 till: -1492 color:PA text:"[[Thutmose I]] (1504–1492 BC)"
from: -1492 till: -1479 color:PA text:"[[Thutmose II]] (1492–1479 BC)"
from: -1479 till: -1457 color:PA text:"[[Hatshepsut]] (1479–1457 BC)"
from: -1479 till: -1425 color:PA text:"[[Thutmose III]] (1479–1425 BC)"
from: -1427 till: -1401 color:PA text:"[[Amenhotep II]]" (1427–1401 BC)
from: -1401 till: -1391 color:PA text:"[[Thutmose IV]]" (1401–1391 BC)
from: -1391 till: -1353 color:PA text:"[[Amenhotep III]]" (1391–1353 BC)
from: -1353 till: -1335 color:PA text:"[[Akhenaten]]" (1353–1335 BC)
from: -1336 till: -1335 color:PA text:"[[Smenkhkare]] ?" (1336–1335 BC?)
from: -1335 till: -1333 color:PA text:"[[Neferneferuaten]]?" (1335–1333 BC?)
from: -1333 till: -1323 color:PA text:"[[Tutankhamun]] (1333–1323 BC)"
from: -1323 till: -1319 color:PA text:"[[Ay]] (1323–1319 BC)"
from: -1319 till: -1292 color:PA text:"[[Horemheb]] (1319–1292 BC)"
 
barset:skip
</timeline>
 
==Gallery of images==
<gallery>
File:Trial piece showing a head of an unknown king in profile. Uraeus on forehead. Limestone relief. 18th Dynasty. From Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London.jpg|Trial piece showing a head of an unknown king in profile. Uraeus on forehead. Limestone relief. 18th Dynasty. From Thebes, Egypt. The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London
File:AhmoseI-StatueHead MetropolitanMuseum.png|[[Ahmose I]]. Though he was called the founder of the 18th dynasty, he was the brother of [[Kamose]], the last pharaoh of the 17th dynasty. During his reign, he expelled the Hyksos from Lower Egypt and brought the Nile Delta under his control, politically unifying Egypt once again.
File:58 I Amenhotep I.jpg|[[Amenhotep I]] gained the throne after his two elder brothers had died. He was the son of Ahmose and Ahmose-Nefertari. He was succeeded by Thutmose I who married his daughter, Ahmose.
File:Amenhotep I.jpg|Amenhotep I with his mother, Ahmose-Nefertari. Both royals are credited with opening a workmen's village at [[Deir el-Medina]]. Dier el-Medina housed the artisans and workers of the pharaohs tombs in the Valley of the Kings, from the 18th to 21st dynasties. Amenhotep I and his mother were deified and were the village's principal gods.
File:ColossalSandstoneHeadOfThutmoseI-BritishMuseum-August19-08.jpg|[[Thutmose I]]. A military man, he came to power by marrying the sister of Amenhotep I. During his reign, he pushed the borders of Egypt into [[Nubia]] and [[the Levant]]. He is credited with the starting the building projects in what is now the [[temple of Karnak]].
File:Thotmes II. (1884) - TIMEA.jpg|Sketch from temple relief of [[Thutmose II]]. Considered a weak ruler, he was married to his sister [[Hatshepsut]]. He named [[Thutmose III]], his son as successor to prevent Hatshepsut from gaining the throne. They had a daughter, [[Neferure]].
File:Hatshepsut temple33.JPG|Hatshepsut. Daughter of Thutmose I, she ruled jointly as her stepson Thutmose III's co-regent. She soon took the throne for herself, and declared herself pharaoh. While there may have been other female rulers before her, she is the only one who used the symbolic beard.
File:Thutmosis III wien front.jpg|Thutmosis III, a military man and member of the [[Thutmosid]] royal line is commonly called the "Napoleon of Egypt". His conquests of the Levant brought Egypt's territories and influence to its greatest extent.
File:Statue of Amenhotep II from the Museo Egizio.jpg|[[Amenhotep II]].
File:Thutmosis IV Head.jpg|Thutmose IV.
File:Berlin Neues Museum - statue d'Amenhotep III.jpg|[[Amenhotep III]].
File:Akhenaten statue.jpg|[[Akhenaten]], born Amenhotep IV, began a religious revolution in which he declared [[Aten]] was a supreme god and turned his back on the old traditions. He moved the capital to [[Akhetaten]].
File:Wiki nefertiti bittidjz.jpg|[[Queen Nefertiti]] the daughter of [[Ay]], married Akhenaten. Her role in daily life at the court soon extended from Great Royal Wife to that of a co-regent. It is also possible that she may have ruled Egypt in her own right as pharaoh [[Neferneferuaten]].
File:PrincesseAmarna.jpg|[[Meritaten|Queen Meritaten]], was the eldest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. She was the wife of [[Smenkhkare]]. She also may have ruled Egypt in her own right as pharaoh and is one of the possible candidates of being the pharaoh [[Neferneferuaten]].
File:Ägyptischer Maler um 1360 v. Chr. 002.jpg|[[Neferneferure]] and [[Neferneferuaten Tasherit]]. Shown here as children, they were two of six daughters born to Akhenaten and Nefertiti. It is possible that Neferneferuaten Tasherit was the one who may have been her father's co-regent and may have ruled as the female pharaoh, Neferneferuaten.
File:PortraitStudyOfAkhenaten-ThutmoseWorkshop EgyptianMuseumBerlin.png|[[Smenkhkare]], was a co-regent of Akhenaten who ruled after his death. It was believed that Smenkhkare was a male guise of Nefertiti, however, it is accepted that Smenkhkare was a male. He took Meritaten, Queen Nefertiti's daughter as his wife.
File:Tutmask.jpg|[[Tutankhamun]], formerly Tutankhaten, was Akhenaten's son. As pharaoh, he instigated policies to restore Egypt to its old religion and moved the capital away from Akhetaten.
File:Opening of the Mouth - Tutankhamun and Aja-2.jpg|[[Ay]] served as [[vizier]] to Akhenaten, and Tutankhamun. He was the father of Nefertiti. After the death of Tutankhamun, Ay laid a claim to the throne by burying him and marrying his granddaughter [[Ankhesenamun]].
File:StatueOfHoremhebAndTheGodHorus-DetailOfHoremheb02 KunsthistorischesMuseum Nov13-10.jpg|After the death of Ay, [[Horemheb]] assumed the throne. A commoner, he had served as vizier to both Tutankhamun and Ay. Horemheb instigated a policy of ''[[damnatio memoriae]]'', against everyone associated with the [[Amarna period]]. He was married to Nefertiti's sister, [[Mutnodjmet]], who died in childbirth. With no heir, he appointed his own vizier, [[Paramessu]] as his successor.
File:Ägyptisches Museum Berlin 027.jpg|[[Tiye]] was the daughter of the visizer [[Yuya]]. She married Amenhotep III, and became his principal wife. Her knowledge of government helped her gain power in her position and she was soon running affairs of state and foreign affairs for her husband, Amenhotep III and later her son, Akhenaten. She is also Tutankhamun's grandmother.
File:Senenu Grinding Grain, ca. 1352-1336 B.C..jpg|Senenu, High Priest of [[Amūn]] at [[Deir el-Bahari|Deir El-Baḥri]], grinding grain, c. 1352–1292 BC, [[Limestone]], Brooklyn Museum.
File:Tomb_of_Nakht_(6).jpg|[[Beautiful Festival of the Valley]] (Celebration of the dead in Thebes)
</gallery>
 
==See also==
* [[Egyptian chronology]]
 
==References==
{{Reflist|2}}
 
==Bibliography==
* {{Cite book | last = Kuhrt | first = Amélie | author-link = Amélie Kuhrt | title = The Ancient Near East: c. 3000–330 BC | publisher = [[Routledge]] | year = 1995 | location = London | url = https://archive.org/details/ancientneareastc00akuh | url-access = registration | isbn = 9780415013536}}
 
==External links==
* [http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/compoundobject/collection/p15324coll10/id/82622/rec/1 Hatshepsut: from Queen to Pharaoh], an exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art (fully available online as PDF)
 
{{Authority control}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Eighteenth Dynasty Of Egypt}}
[[Category:Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt| ]]
[[Category:States and territories established in the 16th century BC]]
[[Category:States and territories disestablished in the 13th century BC]]
[[Category:Dynasties of ancient Egypt|18]]
[[Category:New Kingdom of Egypt|18]]
[[Category:16th century BC in Egypt]]
[[Category:15th century BC in Egypt]]
[[Category:14th century BC in Egypt]]
[[Category:13th century BC in Egypt]]
[[Category:16th-century BC establishments in Egypt]]
[[Category:13th century BC disestablishments in Egypt]]
[[Category:2nd millennium BC in Egypt]]
 
[[de:Neues Reich#18. Dynastie]]
11 741

edits