«Մասնակից:Tatevik2004/Ավազարկղ4»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
(Ջնջվում է էջի ամբողջ պարունակությունը)
Պիտակ: Դատարկում
[[File:L'abbé Ména et le Christ 01.JPG|thumb|[[Icon of Christ and Abbot Mena|Christ and Saint Menas]], 6th-century Coptic icon, Louvre]]
[[File:Figurative Capital.jpg|thumb|Figurative capital, [[Coptic Museum]], [[Cairo]].]]
[[File:Coptic rondel.jpg|thumb|Rondel, wool on linen, 6th century, Syrian or Egyptian Coptic. [[Cooper Union]] museum.]]
[[File:Coptic tunic ornament.jpg|thumb|[[Tunic]] ornament, wool, [[tapestry]] weave, 10th century. [[California Academy of Sciences]] collections.]]
 
'''Coptic art''' is the [[Christianity|Christian]] art of the [[Byzantine empire|Byzantine]]-[[Roman Egypt|Greco-Roman Egypt]] and of [[Coptic Orthodox Church|Coptic Christian Churches]]. Coptic art is best known for its wall-paintings, textiles, [[illuminated manuscript]]s, and metalwork, much of which survives in monasteries and churches. The artwork is often functional, as little distinction was drawn between artistry and craftsmanship, and includes tunics and tombstones as well as portraits of saints.
The [[Coptic Museum]] in [[Coptic Cairo]]<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20040603205525/http://www.copticmuseum.gov.eg/English/internal/brief_history.asp Coptic museum]. copticmuseum.gov.eg</ref> houses some of the world's most important examples of Coptic art.<ref>[https://web.archive.org/web/20070214033413/http://www.lastminute.com/site/find/World/Middle-East/Egypt/Cairo/WOW-Attraction-106088.html Coptic Museum]. lastminute.com</ref>
 
== Origins ==
Coptic art displays a mix of Egyptian and [[Hellenistic art|Hellenistic influences]].<ref>[http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&story_id=&module_id=305&language_id=1&text=textGreek Influence on Coptic Art] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181122172013/http://www.eternalegypt.org/EternalEgyptWebsiteWeb/HomeServlet?ee_website_action_key=action.display.module&story_id=&module_id=305&language_id=1&text=textGreek |date=2018-11-22 }}. eternalegypt.org. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.</ref> Subjects and symbols were taken from both [[Greek mythology|Greek]] and Egyptian mythology, sometimes altered to fit [[Christianity|Christian beliefs]]. Persia and Syria also influenced Coptic and Hellenistic art, though to a lesser extent, leaving images such as the peacock and the griffin.
 
== Icon painting ==
Coptic [[icon]]s have their origin in the [[Greco-Roman world|Greco-Roman art]] of Egypt's Late Antiquity, as exemplified by the [[Fayum mummy portraits]].<ref>[http://www.freeessays.cc/db/6/ame86.shtml Greek And Roman Art]. Freeessays.cc. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.</ref> The faces of [[Fayoum|El Fayum]] are examples of the Coptic art in the 2nd century AD showing the [[Greek art|Greek]] and [[Roman art|Roman influence]] on the Coptic art but with some distinctive features related to Egyptian art.
 
The Muslim conquest of Egypt allowed the local Coptic art to influence Egypt's then Islamic art and architecture with many features that are now integral in many Egyptian buildings.
 
Beginning in the 4th century, churches painted their walls and made icons to reflect an authentic expression of their faith.
 
The figures of saints display eyes and ears larger in proportion to the rest of the face and a smaller mouth, as well as enlarged heads, signifying a spiritual relationship with God and devotion to prayer. Martyrs' faces were peaceful.
 
Many Coptic icon painters did not sign their names, but the prominent among them include St. [[Luke the Evangelist|Luke]] (traditionally believed to be the first icon painter) and two [[Coptic Pope]]s, [[Pope Macarius I of Alexandria|Pope Macarius I]] and [[Pope Gabriel III of Alexandria|Pope Gabriel III]]<ref>Wahba, Zakaria (January 1993) [http://www.coptic.net/articles/CopticIcons.txt ICONS – 'Their history and Spiritual Significance']. Coptic.net. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.</ref>
 
Starting mid-18th century icon painting enjoyed a revival in Egypt and once again was popular. One of the most famous artists was [[Yuhanna al-Armani]] whose works were noted for using more developed techniques and novel construction (e.g. using a set of icons to tell a single story).<ref>Magdi Guirguis, ''An Armenian Artist in Ottoman Cairo: Yuhanna al-Armani and His Coptic Icons'' (Cairo,: The American University in Cairo Press, 2008)</ref>
 
== Influence ==
The influence of Coptic art and architecture on [[Islamic architecture]] and incorporation of some Coptic features in Islamic building started as early as the 7th century AD <ref>[http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0018814.html Islamic art] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080624080152/http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0018814.html |date=2008-06-24 }}. Tiscali. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.</ref>
 
As the [[Church of Alexandria]] was the first Church of Africa the influence of Coptic art spread to Sudan and Ethiopia. Some forms of the [[Coptic cross]] are known as the [[Ethiopian cross]] and many Churches in Ethiopia show the influence of the Coptic art.
 
[[Menas flask]]s are very cheap [[terracotta]] bottles bought by pilgrims to [[Abu Mina]], the shrine of [[Saint Menas]], in the 4th and 5th centuries. The clay was impressed before firing with blocks with images of the saint. They have been found nearly all over the Christian world, and many scholars trace influence from their fairly crude images in the emerging [[iconography]] of Western [[medieval art]], among other Coptic influences.
 
== Textiles ==
A remarkable number of Coptic [[textile]]s survive today, due to the Coptic custom of burying them with the dead, and to the aridity of Egyptian graves. The textiles are commonly linen or wool and use the colors red, blue, yellow, green, purple, black and brown. The dyes were derived from madder, indigo, woad, saffron, the murex shell, and the kermes insect. The first looms used were horizontal low-warp; vertical high-warp looms were introduced later. The basic garment was the [[tunic]], which would become the dalmatic. Some tunics were woven in one piece. They were decorated by clavi, a stylistic import from Rome.
 
Some fine examples of the Coptic textile are shown in museums all over the world and a large collection is in the [[Coptic Museum]] in [[Coptic Cairo]]<ref>Bernier, Oliver (1989-01-01) [https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=travel&res=950DE5D61239F932A35752C0A96F948260 Coptic Artistry And Tradition In Old Cairo]. New York Times. Retrieved on 2013-08-23.</ref>
Tens of thousands of coloured fragments found their way into the museums of the world, especially after 1889 when the French archaeologist [[Albert Gayet]] published a catalogue of Coptic art and, in the [[Bulaq Museum]], staged the first exhibition of Coptic monuments.<ref>[http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/796/hr1.htm A tapestry of Coptic history] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071011081124/http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2006/796/hr1.htm |date=2007-10-11 }}. ''Al-Ahram Weekly''. Weekly.ahram.org.eg, Issue No. 796 (2006-05-31). Retrieved on 2013-08-23.</ref> The early Coptic textiles still produced pictures and decoration incorporating Egyptian and Greek motifs. Shrouds, for example, might incorporate classical elements were painted in the form of an Egyptian sarcophagus and include representations of Egyptian gods to protect the dead. Later coptic textiles showed the influence of Byzantium and later, Islamic art.
 
== Modern Coptic art ==
Modern Coptic art is also known as the Neo-Coptic school. In recent centuries icons have been the main means of expression, keeping most traditional aspects. Coptic icons are more concerned religious truth and beauty than with realism, the depiction of depth, or perspective. As in the [[Byzantine architecture|Byzantine]] and related traditions, the figures are depicted frontally, looking straight at the viewer. Today, Coptic icons are found not only in churches, but also in homes and praying altars. They may also be purchased from Coptic gift shops throughout [[Egypt]] and the Coptic diaspora.
 
During the papacy of [[Pope Cyril VI]], the emergence of Coptic painters like [[Isaac Fanous|Isaac Fanous Youssef]], along with the revival of Coptic art, brought about the creation of the Contemporary or Neo-Coptic school of iconography.
 
In 1952, architect and coptic Christian [[Ramses Wissa Wassef]] founded the [[Ramses Wissa Wassef Art Center]] in Giza, Egypt. He asked 14 children, mostly copts, to develop a new artform by reviving the ancient coptic weaving method. The coptic weaver [[Maryam Hermina]] (born 1932) taught the children the technique. The Art Centre has a significant museum of the 20th century tapestries.
 
== Gallery ==
{{gallery
|width=150|height=150|lines=4
|File:Vierge filant 01.JPG|Part of wood relief of the [[Annunciation]], 5th century, [[Louvre]]
|File:Coptic icon with an archangel.jpg| 17th century Coptic icon of an Archangel, Athens
|File:Yuhanna-Mercurius.jpg|18th century icon of [[Saint Mercurius]] by [[Yuhanna al-Armani]]
|File:ChristCopticArt.jpg|Modern Coptic icon of [[Jesus Christ]]
|File:StAnthony.jpg|Modern Coptic icon of [[Saint Anthony the Great]]
<!-- |File:StDemiana4.jpg|Modern Coptic icon of [[Saint Demiana]] -->
|File:StMaurice2.jpg|Coptic icon of [[Saint Maurice]]
<!-- |File:StMina4.jpg|Coptic icon of [[Saint Menas]] -->
<!-- |File:SaintPishoy.jpg|Coptic icon of [[Saint Pishoy]] -->
|File:Ahrakas and Oghani.png|Coptic icon of the saints [[Ahrakas and Augani]]
|File:St.Cosman & St.Damien by Maryam Hermina 1960.jpg|1960 Weaving by Maryam Hermina. "Healing the Woman" left, "St.Cosman & St.Damien", right, woven at Ramses Wissa Wassef Museum – Giza
|File:Pilgrim flask St. Menas Louvre MN1469.jpg|[[Terracotta]] pilgrim's [[Menas flask]] impressed with [[Saint Minas]] between two camels, Byzantine, 6th–7th century, probably made at [[Abu Mena|Abu Mina]], Egypt (Louvre Museum)
}}
 
== See also ==
* [[Coptic Museum]]
* [[Isaac Fanous]]
* [[Coptic Alphabet]]
* [[Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria]]
* [[Coptology]]
* [[Adel Nassief]]
* [[Institute of Coptic Studies]]
 
== References ==
{{Reflist}}
 
== External links ==
{{Commons category|Coptic art}}
* [http://ccdl.libraries.claremont.edu/cdm/ref/collection/cce/id/253 Claremont Coptic Encyclopedia]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20170916180534/http://copticicons.com.au/ Coptic Icons]
* [http://www.coptic.net/articles/CopticArtOfEgypt.txt Introduction to Coptic art, from Coptic-net]
* [http://www.copticartstudio.com/ The Coptic Art Studio]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20010411221527/http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Canvas/9460/coptic.html Coptic Icons]
* [http://www.coptic.net/CopticWeb/Links-Arts.html Coptic net links to photos and resources]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20181123055711/http://www.iub.edu/~iuam/online_modules/coptic/cophome.html Coptic textiles from Indiana University Art Museum]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20070827190949/http://www.calacademy.org/research/anthropology/coptic/index.html Coptic Textile calacademy]
* [http://www.museocaprai.it/en/tecnica_Tessuti_Copti.htm Coptic textiles – Virtual Museum of Textile Arts]
* [https://www.academia.edu/21250301/Coptic_textiles._Collection_of_the_Pushkin_State_Museum_of_Fine_Art_%D0%9E.%D0%92._%D0%9B%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%B8%D1%86%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F._%D0%9A%D0%BE%D0%BF%D1%82%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D1%82%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B8_%D0%93%D0%9C%D0%98%D0%98_%D0%B8%D0%BC._%D0%90.%D0%A1._%D0%9F%D1%83%D1%88%D0%BA%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0._%D0%9A%D0%B0%D1%82%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3_%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%86%D0%B8%D0%B8 Coptic textiles from Moscow Pushkin State Museum of Fine Art]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080624191237/http://www.romanylatif.com/cgi-bin/album.pl?album=coptic Online gallery of rare Coptic icons]
* [http://st-takla.org/Gallery/search.html?q=coptic+icon Gallery of ancient and contemporary Coptic icons and art]
* [http://wissawassef.com/ Ramses Wissa Wassef Art Center]
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The so-called ''"tabak najmii''", i.e., "star-like" dish. See http://www0egy_chr_art.webs.com.
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