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=== 2020թ. մարտի 9-ի շաբաթը ===
Մարտի 9-ի առավոտյան S&P 500 ցուցանիշը նվազեց 7%-ով՝ բորսայի բացումից չորս րոպե անց՝ 2007-08թթ. ֆինանսական ճգնաժամից հետո առաջին անգամ միացնելով անջատիչը և 15 րոպե տևողությամբ կանգնեցնելով առևտուրը:<ref>{{cite news|last1=Ponczek|first1=Sarah|last2=Hajric|first2=Vildana|title=S&P 500 Plunges 7%, Triggering Market-Wide Stock Trading Halt|url=https://finance.yahoo.com/news/rout-u-stock-futures-trigger-221631295.html|access-date=9 March 2020|work=Bloomberg|date=9 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309035425/https://finance.yahoo.com/news/rout-u-stock-futures-trigger-221631295.html|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Առեւտրի վերջում ամբողջ աշխարհում ֆոնդային շուկաներում զանգվածային
On the morning of 9 March, the S&P 500 fell 7% in four minutes after the exchange opened, triggering a [[Trading curb|circuit breaker]] for the first time since the [[financial crisis of 2007–08]] and halting trading for 15 minutes.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Ponczek|first1=Sarah|last2=Hajric|first2=Vildana|title=S&P 500 Plunges 7%, Triggering Market-Wide Stock Trading Halt|url=https://finance.yahoo.com/news/rout-u-stock-futures-trigger-221631295.html|access-date=9 March 2020|work=Bloomberg|date=9 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309035425/https://finance.yahoo.com/news/rout-u-stock-futures-trigger-221631295.html|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> At the end of trading, stock markets worldwide saw massive declines (with the [[STOXX Europe 600]] [[Market trend#Bear market|falling to more than 20% below]] its [[Maxima and minima|peak]] earlier in the year),<ref>{{cite news|last1=Huang|first1=Eustance|title=Japan stocks drop 5%, China and Hong Kong shares plunge beyond 3% amid oil price war|date=8 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/09/asia-markets-oil-prices-coronavirus-currencies-in-focus.html|access-date=10 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309160717/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/09/asia-markets-oil-prices-coronavirus-currencies-in-focus.html|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|last2=Ellyat|first2=Holly|title=European stocks close 7% lower and enter bear market territory as oil prices crash|date=9 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/09/european-markets-plunge-as-coronavirus-spreads-further-and-oil-slumps.html|access-date=10 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309160516/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/09/european-markets-plunge-as-coronavirus-spreads-further-and-oil-slumps.html|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> with the Dow Jones Industrial Average eclipsing the previous one-day decline record on 27 February by falling 2,014 points (or 7.8%).<ref>{{cite news|last1=Li|first1=Yun|title=Dow sinks 2,000 points in worst day since 2008, S&P 500 drops more than 7%|date=9 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/08/dow-futures-drop-700-points-as-all-out-oil-price-war-adds-to-coronavirus-stress.html|access-date=10 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309155615/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/08/dow-futures-drop-700-points-as-all-out-oil-price-war-adds-to-coronavirus-stress.html|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> The yield on 10-year and 30-year U.S. Treasury securities hit new record lows, with the 30-year securities falling below 1% for the first time in history.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Franck|first1=Thomas|last2=Li|first2=Yun|title=10-year Treasury yield hits new all-time low of 0.318% amid historic flight to bonds|date=8 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/09/10-year-treasury-yield-plunges.html|access-date=10 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309193520/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/09/10-year-treasury-yield-plunges.html|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
Onանկում 12է March, Asia-Pacific stock markets closed downգրանցվել (withSTOXX theEurope [[Nikkei600 225]]ցուցանիշը ofնվազել theէ [[Tokyoավելի Stock Exchange]] also falling to more thanքան 20%-ով՝ belowհասնելով itsտարվա 52-weekիր highգագաթնակետին),<ref>{{cite news|lastlast1=Huang|firstfirst1=Eustance|title=Japan stocks followdrop Dow5%, intoChina aand bearHong marketKong asshares Trumpplunge suspendsbeyond travel3% fromamid Europe;oil WHOprice declares coronavirus outbreak a pandemicwar|date=118 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1209/asia-markets-dowoil-bear-marketprices-coronavirus-currencies-in-focus.html|access-date=1210 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/2020031221373420200309160717/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1209/asia-markets-dowoil-bear-marketprices-coronavirus-currencies-in-focus.html|archive-date=129 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> European stock markets closed down 11% (their worst one-day decline in history),<ref>{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|last2=EllyattEllyat|first2=Holly|title=European stocks close 117% lower inand worstenter one-daybear dropmarket everterritory onas coronavirusoil fearsprices crash|date=129 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1209/europeeuropean-markets-poisedplunge-toas-opencoronavirus-lowerspreads-afterfurther-trumpand-restricts-european-travel-tooil-usslumps.html|access-date=1210 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/2020031221372420200309160516/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1209/europeeuropean-markets-poisedplunge-toas-opencoronavirus-lowerspreads-afterfurther-trumpand-restricts-european-travel-tooil-usslumps.html|archive-date=129 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> whileիսկ theԴոու-Ջոնսի Dowցուցանիշը Jonesիր Industrialնախորդ Averageմեկօրյա closedռեկորդային downկրճատումը anգերազանցել additionalէ 10%փետրվարի (eclipsing the one27-dayին՝ recordկրճատվելով set on 9 March), the NASDAQ Composite was down 92.4%,014 andկոտով theկամ S&P 500 was down 97.58% (with the NASDAQ and S&P 500 also falling to more than 20% below their peaks), and the declines activated the trading curb at the [[New York Stock Exchange]] for the second time that week.-ով:<ref>{{cite news|last1=ImbertLi|first1=Fred|last2=Franck|first2=ThomasYun|title=Dow plungessinks 10%2,000 amidpoints coronavirus fears for itsin worst day since the 1987 market crash|date=12 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/11/futures-are-steady-wednesday-night-after-dow-closes-in-bear-market-traders-await-trump.html|access-date=12 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312000949/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/11/futures-are-steady-wednesday-night-after-dow-closes-in-bear-market-traders-await-trump.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Culp|first1=Stephen|title=Wall Street plunges2008, bringingS&P record bull run to an end|date=12 March 2020|agency=[[Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-stocks/wall-street-plunges-bringing-record-bull-run-to-an-end-idUSKBN20Z0CM|access-date=12 March 2020}}</ref> Oil prices dropped by 8%,<ref>{{cite news|last1=Stevens|first1=Pippa|title=Oil500 drops as much as 8%, on pace for worst week in more than a decade7%|date=129 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1208/oildow-dropsfutures-asdrop-700-muchpoints-as-8percentall-onout-paceoil-forprice-worstwar-weekadds-into-more-than-acoronavirus-decadestress.html|access-date=1210 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/2020031221375020200309155615/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1208/oildow-dropsfutures-asdrop-700-muchpoints-as-8percentall-onout-paceoil-forprice-worstwar-weekadds-into-morecoronavirus-than-a-decadestress.html|archive-date=129 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> whileԱՄՆ theտասը yieldsև on30 10-yearտարի andմարման 30-yearժամկետով U.S.գանձապետական Treasuryարժեթղթերի securitiesեկամտաբերությունը increasedհատեց toիր 0.86%նոր andռեկորդային 1.45%անկումը՝ (andպատմության theirմեջ [[yieldառաջին curve]]անգամ finished30 [[Yieldտարի curve#Normalժամկետայնությամբ yieldարժեթղթերի curve|normal]]).գինը նվազելով մինչև 1%:<ref>{{cite news|last1=SmithFranck|first1=ElliotThomas|last2=Li|first2=Yun|title=10-year Treasury yield riseshits evennew asall-time stockslow tumbleof into0.318% bearamid markethistoric flight to bonds|date=128 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1209/treasury10-yieldsyear-falltreasury-asyield-dow-slides-into-bear-marketplunges.html|access-date=1210 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/2020031221380420200309193520/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/1209/treasury10-yieldsyear-falltreasury-asyield-dow-slides-into-bear-marketplunges.html|archive-date=129 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> On 15 March, the Fed cut its benchmark interest rate by a full percentage point, to a target range of 0 to 0.25%. However, in response, futures on the S&P 500 and crude oil dropped on continued market worries.<ref name="NYT_150320">{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/15/business/stock-market-today-coronavirus.html|title=Fed Cuts Interest Rates in Bid to Protect Economy: Live Updates|date=16 March 2020|website=The New York Times|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200316004742/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/15/business/stock-market-today-coronavirus.html|archive-date=16 March 2020|access-date=16 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Almost 75% of the hedge funds suffered steep losses during this timeline.<ref>{{cite news|author1=Bei Hu|author2=Nishant Kumar|title=Hedge Fund Hotshots Suffer Humbling Losses in Coronavirus Chaos|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-04-16/hedge-fund-hotshots-suffer-humbling-losses-in-coronavirus-chaos|access-date=30 May 2020|work=Bloomberg News|date=16 April 2020|language=en}}</ref>
 
Մարտի 12-ին, Ասիական-Խաղաղօվկիանոսյան ֆոնդային բորսաները փակվեցին (Տոկյոյի ֆոնդային բորսայի Nikkei 225 ցուցանիշը նույնպես կրճատվեց ավելի քան 20%-ով),<ref>{{cite news|last=Huang|first=Eustance|title=Japan stocks follow Dow into a bear market as Trump suspends travel from Europe; WHO declares coronavirus outbreak a pandemic|date=11 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/asia-markets-dow-bear-market-coronavirus-currencies-in-focus.html|access-date=12 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312213734/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/asia-markets-dow-bear-market-coronavirus-currencies-in-focus.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Եվրոպայի ֆոնդային շուկաները կրճատվեցին 11%-ով (պատմության մեջ մեկօրյա ամենաշատ անկումը),<ref>{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|last2=Ellyatt|first2=Holly|title=European stocks close 11% lower in worst one-day drop ever on coronavirus fears|date=12 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/europe-markets-poised-to-open-lower-after-trump-restricts-european-travel-to-us.html|access-date=12 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312213724/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/europe-markets-poised-to-open-lower-after-trump-restricts-european-travel-to-us.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> իսկ [[Դոու-Ջոնսի արդյունաբերական ցուցանիշ|Դոու-Ջոնսի արդյունաբերական ցուցանիշը]] կրճատվեց ևս 10%-ով (մարտի 9-ին սահմանած մեկօրյա ռեկորդը գերազանցելով), NASDAQ Composite-ը կրճատվեց 9.4%-ով, իսկ S&P 500-ը՝ 9.5%-ով (NASDAQ and S&P 500 ցուցանիշները կրճատվում են ևս ավելի քանի 20%-ով ցածր իրենց գագաթնակետից), և այդ նվազումը ակտիվացրել է [[Նյու Յորքի ֆոնդային բորսա]]<nowiki/>յում առևտրային ակտիվությունը շաբաթվա մեջ արդեն երկրորդ անգամ:<ref>{{cite news|last1=Imbert|first1=Fred|last2=Franck|first2=Thomas|title=Dow plunges 10% amid coronavirus fears for its worst day since the 1987 market crash|date=12 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/11/futures-are-steady-wednesday-night-after-dow-closes-in-bear-market-traders-await-trump.html|access-date=12 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312000949/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/11/futures-are-steady-wednesday-night-after-dow-closes-in-bear-market-traders-await-trump.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Culp|first1=Stephen|title=Wall Street plunges, bringing record bull run to an end|date=12 March 2020|agency=[[Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-stocks/wall-street-plunges-bringing-record-bull-run-to-an-end-idUSKBN20Z0CM|access-date=12 March 2020}}</ref> Նավթի գինն ընկավ 8%-ով,<ref>{{cite news|last1=Stevens|first1=Pippa|title=Oil drops as much as 8%, on pace for worst week in more than a decade|date=12 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/oil-drops-as-much-as-8percent-on-pace-for-worst-week-in-more-than-a-decade.html|access-date=12 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312213750/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/oil-drops-as-much-as-8percent-on-pace-for-worst-week-in-more-than-a-decade.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> իսկ ԱՄՆ տասը և 30 տարի մարման ժամկետայնություն ունեցող գանձապետական արժեթղթերի գինն աճեց 0.86% և 1.45%-ով, և դրանց եկամտաբերության կորը հասավ իր նորմալ դիրքին:<ref>{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|last2=Li|first2=Yun|title=10-year Treasury yield rises even as stocks tumble into bear market|date=12 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/treasury-yields-fall-as-dow-slides-into-bear-market.html|access-date=12 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200312213804/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/12/treasury-yields-fall-as-dow-slides-into-bear-market.html|archive-date=12 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Մարտի 15-ին, նվազեց բազային տոկոսադրույքը ամբողջական տոկոսային կետով՝ նպատակային միջակայք սահմանելով զրոյից 0.25%-ը: Սակայն, ի պատասխան դրան, S&P 500-ի և հում նավթի ֆյուչերսների գները նվազել են շուկայում շարունակական մտավախությունների պատճառով:<ref name="NYT_150320">{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/15/business/stock-market-today-coronavirus.html|title=Fed Cuts Interest Rates in Bid to Protect Economy: Live Updates|date=16 March 2020|website=The New York Times|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200316004742/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/15/business/stock-market-today-coronavirus.html|archive-date=16 March 2020|access-date=16 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Հեջավորման հիմնադրամների մոտ 75%-ը կրել է լուրջ վնասներ այս ընթացքում:<ref>{{cite news|author1=Bei Hu|author2=Nishant Kumar|title=Hedge Fund Hotshots Suffer Humbling Losses in Coronavirus Chaos|url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-04-16/hedge-fund-hotshots-suffer-humbling-losses-in-coronavirus-chaos|access-date=30 May 2020|work=Bloomberg News|date=16 April 2020|language=en}}</ref>
== Oil prices ==
 
{{See also|2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war}}The [[COVID-19 pandemic]] and related confinement measures caused an unprecedented contraction in economic activity and a collapse in demand for oil and oil products. The result is one of the biggest price shocks the energy market experienced since the first oil shock of 1973. Oil prices dipped below US$20 ([[Brent Crude]]) a barrel, losing nearly 70% in value, with storage capacity approaching its limits (OilPrice).<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/covid-19-crisis-response-in-mena-countries-4b366396/#section-d1e193|title=COVID-19 crisis response in MENA countries|website=OECD|language=en|access-date=14 May 2020}}</ref>
== Նավթի գինը ==
{{See also|2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war}}Կորոնավիրուսային համավարակը և դրանով պայմանավորված սահմանափակումները պատճառ դարձան տնտեսական ակտիվության աննախադեպ կրճատման և նավթի ու նավթամթերքի նկատմամբ պահանջարկի կրճատման: Արդյունքում տեղի է ունեցել էներգետիկ շուկայում ամենամեծ գնային ցնցումներից մեկը՝ 1973թ. նավթային առաջին շոկի ժամանակներից ի վեր: Նավթի գինը ընկավ 20 ԱՄՆ դոլլարից ներքև (Brent տեսակի նավթը) մեկ բարելի դիմաց՝ կորցնելով իր արժեքի մոտ 70%-ը, իսկ պահեստային տարողությունները մոտեցել են իրենց լիմիտին:<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/covid-19-crisis-response-in-mena-countries-4b366396/#section-d1e193|title=COVID-19 crisis response in MENA countries|website=OECD|language=en|access-date=14 May 2020}}</ref>
[[Պատկեր:WTI_price_2019-2020.png|աջից|մինի|Movement of [[West Texas Intermediate|WTI]] price from 2019. The crash started in mid-February 2020. On 20 April 2020, prices dropped below zero for the first time in history.<ref name="FT_Apr20">{{cite news|last1=Sheppard|first1=David|last2=McCormick|first2=Myles|last3=Brower|first3=Derek|last4=Lockett|first4=Hudson|title=US oil price below zero for first time in history|url=https://www.ft.com/content/a5292644-958d-4065-92e8-ace55d766654|access-date=20 April 2020|work=Financial Times|date=20 April 2020}}</ref><ref name="WP_Apr20">{{cite web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/04/20/oil-barrel-below-zero/|title=Oil drops below $0, signaling extreme collapse in demand. But you're still going to have to pay for gas.|last1=Englund|first1=Will|date=20 April 2020|website=The Washington Post|language=en|access-date=20 April 2020}}</ref>]]
[[Պատկեր:U.S._motor_gasoline_product_supplied_(49784554532).png|մինի|Demand for motor gasoline fell sharply in the United States]]
TheՈւղևորությունների reductionնկատմամբ inպահանջարկի theկրճատումը [[demand]]և forարդյունաբերական travelակտիվության andբացակայությունը theզգալիորեն lackազդել ofէ factoryնավթի activityպահանջարկի dueվրա՝ toբերելով theնավթի outbreakգների significantly impacted demand for oil, causing its price to fall.կրճատման:<ref>{{cite news|title=Oil prices fall as coronavirus spreads outside China|url=https://apnews.com/6449ec1c2eb460366853dd3e799dd877|access-date=9 March 2020|agency=[[Associated Press]]|date=29 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200308175452/https://apnews.com/6449ec1c2eb460366853dd3e799dd877|archive-date=8 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> InՓետրվարի mid-Februaryկեսերին, theէներգետիկայի [[Internationalմիջազգային Energyգործակալությունը Agency]]կանխատեսեց, forecastedոր thatնավթի oilպահանջարկի demandաճը growth2020թ. inամենացածրն 2020է wouldլինելու be2011 theթվականից smallestի since 2011.վեր:<ref>{{cite news|title=Coronavirus set to knock oil demand growth to slowest since 2011|url=https://www.ft.com/content/babdb1ba-4e3b-11ea-95a0-43d18ec715f5|access-date=9 March 2020|work=[[Financial Times]]|date=13 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200214140259/https://www.ft.com/content/babdb1ba-4e3b-11ea-95a0-43d18ec715f5|archive-date=14 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> Chinese demand slump resulted in a meeting of the [[Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries]] (OPEC) to discuss a potential cut in production to balance the loss in demand.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Kollewe|first1=Julia|title=Opec discusses coronavirus as Chinese oil demand slumps – as it happened|url=https://www.theguardian.com/business/live/2020/feb/04/opec-to-discuss-coronavirus-as-chinese-oil-demand-slumps-business-live|access-date=9 March 2020|work=The Guardian|date=4 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200206095240/https://www.theguardian.com/business/live/2020/feb/04/opec-to-discuss-coronavirus-as-chinese-oil-demand-slumps-business-live|archive-date=6 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> The cartel initially made a tentative agreement to cut oil production by 1.5&nbsp;million barrels per day (bpd) following a meeting in Vienna on 5 March 2020, which would bring the production levels to the lowest it has been since the [[Iraq War]]. Meanwhile, analytics firm [[IHS Markit]] predicted a fall global demand for crude to fall by 3.8&nbsp;million bpd in the first quarter of 2020, largely due to the halt to Chinese economic activity due to the virus; it also predicted the first annual reduction in demand for crude since the [[financial crisis of 2007–08]].<ref>{{cite news|last1=Johnson|first1=Keith|title=OPEC Tries to Forestall a Coronavirus Oil Collapse|url=https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/05/opec-tries-forestall-coronavirus-oil-collapse-crude-prices/|access-date=9 March 2020|work=[[Foreign Policy (magazine)|Foreign Policy]]|date=5 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200307041622/https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/03/05/opec-tries-forestall-coronavirus-oil-collapse-crude-prices/|archive-date=7 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
However, Russia refused to cooperate with the OPEC cuts, effectively ending the agreement it has maintained with OPEC since 2016. Russia balked as it believed that the growth of [[shale oil]] extraction in the U.S., which was not party to any agreement with OPEC, would require continued cuts for the foreseeable future. Reduced prices would also damage the U.S. shale industry by forcing prices below operating costs for many shale producers, and thus retaliate for the damage inflicted on Russian and OPEC finances. The breakdown in talks also resulted in a failure to extend the cut in output of 2.1&nbsp;million bpd that was scheduled to expire at the end of March.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/09/business/energy-environment/oil-opec-saudi-russia.html|title=How a Saudi-Russian Standoff Sent Oil Markets Into a Frenzy|last1=Reed|first1=Stanley|date=9 March 2020|website=The New York Times|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200310001808/https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/09/business/energy-environment/oil-opec-saudi-russia.html|archive-date=10 March 2020|access-date=10 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>