«Մասնակից:Ռիմա Մանասերյան/Ավազարկղ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
Միջազգային և ազգային մակարդակներում, ինչպես նշել է ֆինանսական շուկաների ավստրիական վարչության ղեկավար Հելմուտ Էտլը՝ տնտեսության և շրջակա միջավայրի վրա կորոնավիրուսային համավարակի շարունակական ազդեցությունը գնահատելու համար չկան հուսալի տվյալներ, քանի որ ճգնաժամի այս տեսակն աննախադեպ է: Կազմակերպությունները, որոնք մինչ ճգնաժամը արդեն իսկ ֆինանսապես թույլ էին, այժմ առավել քան անկայուն են: Ըստ Էտլի՝ այն, ինչ հայտնի է, այն է, որ ճգնաժամը կլինի ավելի խորը:<ref>[https://www.derstandard.at/story/2000116461884/fma-chef-ettl-den-absturz-der-wirtschaft-aufhalten Austrian Chief Financial Market Officer Ettl: "Stop the economic crash" (German) In Der Standard, 3 April 2020.]</ref>
 
== StockՖոնդային marketբորսա ==
{{Update section|date=April 2020}}{{main|2020 stock market crash}}
[[Պատկեր:DowJones2020crash.png|մինի|Movement of the [[Dow Jones Industrial Average]] between December 2019 and March 2020, showing the all-time high in February, and the crash in February and March during the COVID-19 pandemic]]
On2020թ. Monday,փետրվարի 24-ին՝ Februaryերկուշաբթի 2020օրը, the [[DowԴոու-Ջոնսի Jonesարդյունաբերական ցուցանիշ|Դոու-Ջոնսի Industrialարդյունաբերական Averageցուցանիշը]] andև [[FTSE 100]] droppedցուցանիշը նվազեցին moreավելի thanքան 3%-ով, asքանի theոր coronavirusշաբաթվա outbreakվերջին spreadօրերին worsenedկորոնավիրուսի substantiallyբռնկումը outsideտարածվեց ofնաև ChinaՉինաստանի overսահմաններից the weekend.դուրս:<ref name="B">{{Cite news|url=https://bbc.co.uk/news/business-51612520|title=Global stock markets plunge on coronavirus fears|work=BBC News|date=24 February 2020|access-date=25 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200225014233/https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-51612520|archive-date=25 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> ThisՆշվածին followsհետևում benchmarkէ [[StockԱսիայից marketհետո index|indices]]նաև fallingԵվրոպական sharplyմայրցամաքում inհիմնական continentalցուցանիշների Europeկտրուկ after steep declines across Asia.անկումը:<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.barrons.com/articles/the-dow-is-down-700-points-as-the-coronavirus-spreads-in-europe-51582548023|title=The Dow Is Down 700 Points as the Coronavirus Strikes in Italy|website=Barrons|publisher=Barrons|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200224141414/https://www.barrons.com/articles/the-dow-is-down-700-points-as-the-coronavirus-spreads-in-europe-51582548023|archive-date=24 February 2020|access-date=24 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/stocks-fall-as-coronavirus-spread-accelerates-outside-china-11582533308|title=Dow Industrials Drop 1,000 Points as Coronavirus Cases Mount Outside Asia|website=The Wall Street Journal|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200224092009/https://www.wsj.com/articles/stocks-fall-as-coronavirus-spread-accelerates-outside-china-11582533308|archive-date=24 February 2020|access-date=24 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> The DAX, CAC 40CAC40 andև IBEX 35 eachցուցանիշներից fellյուրաքանչյուրի byանկումը aboutկազմեց մոտ 4%, and theիսկ FTSE MIB fellցուցանիշը՝ ավելի overքան 5%.: ThereՆվազեց wasնաև aնավթի largeգինը, fallիսկ inոսկու theգինը priceբավականին ofաճեց՝ oilմինչև and7 aտարվա largeառավելագույն increaseցուցանիշ: inՓետրվարի the price of gold, to a 727-year high. On 27 Februaryին, dueկորոնավիրուսի toբռնկման mountingկապակցությամբ worriesաճող aboutանհանգստության the coronavirus outbreakպատճառով, variousԱՄՆ U.S.ֆոնդային stockբորսայի marketտարբեր indicesինդեքսներ՝ including theներառյալ [[NASDAQ-100]], the [[S&P 500 Index]], andԴոու-Ջոնսի theարդյունաբերական [[Dow Jones Industrial Average]] posted their sharpest fallsցուցանիշը, sinceարտացոլեցին 2008, withթվականից theի [[Listվեր ofիրենց largestամենասրընթաց dailyանկումը՝ changesարձանագրելով inԴոու-Ջոնսի the Dow Jones Industrial Average|Dow fallingցուցանիշը 1,.191 points,կետով itsանկում՝ largest2008թ. one-dayֆինանսական drop]]ճգնաժամից sinceհետո theմեկօրյա [[Financialկտրվածքով crisisիր ofամենամեծ 2007–08|2008 financial crisis]].անկումը:<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/27/investing/dow-stock-market-selloff/index.html|title=Dow falls 1,191 points – the most in history|last=Tappe|first=Anneken|date=27 February 2020|website=[[CNN Business]]|publisher=[[CNN]]|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200228000435/https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/27/investing/dow-stock-market-selloff/index.html|archive-date=28 February 2020|access-date=28 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Zhang|first1=Dayong|last2=Hu|first2=Min|last3=Ji|first3=Qiang|date=16 April 2020|title=Financial markets under the global pandemic of COVID-19|journal=Finance Research Letters|language=en|volume=36|pages=101528|doi=10.1016/j.frl.2020.101528|issn=1544-6123|pmc=7160643|pmid=32837360}}</ref> On2020թ. փոտրվարի 28-in, Februaryամբողջ 2020,աշխարհում stockֆոնդային marketsբորսաները worldwideհաղորդեցին reported2008 theirթվականի largestֆինանսական single-weekճգնաժամից declinesհետո sinceտեղի theունեցած 2008իրենց financialխոշորագույն crisis.մեկշաբաթյա անկման մասին:<ref name="CNBC">{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|title=Global stocks head for worst week since the financial crisis amid fears of a possible pandemic|date=28 February 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/28/global-stocks-head-for-worst-week-since-financial-crisis-on-coronavirus-fears.html|access-date=28 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200228210138/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/28/global-stocks-head-for-worst-week-since-financial-crisis-on-coronavirus-fears.html|archive-date=28 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name="cnbc.com">{{cite news|last1=Imbert|first1=Fred|last2=Huang|first2=Eustance|title=Dow falls 350 points Friday to cap the worst week for Wall Street since the financial crisis|date=27 February 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/27/dow-futures-fall-100-points-after-another-massive-rout-amid-coronavirus-fears.html|access-date=28 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200228213917/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/27/dow-futures-fall-100-points-after-another-massive-rout-amid-coronavirus-fears.html|archive-date=28 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name="European stocks fall 12% on the wee">{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|title=European stocks fall 12% on the week as coronavirus grips markets|date=28 February 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/28/europe-markets-coronavirus-hammers-global-stocks.html|access-date=28 February 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200228210951/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/02/28/europe-markets-coronavirus-hammers-global-stocks.html|archive-date=28 February 2020|url-status=live}}</ref>
 
FollowingՀաջորդ a second week ofշաբաթվա turbulenceընթացքում, onմարտի 6 March-ին, stockամբողջ marketsաշխարհում worldwideֆոնդային closedբորսաները down (although the Dow Jones Industrial Average, NASDAQ Composite, and S&P 500 closed up on the week)փակվեցին,<ref>{{cite news|last1=Huang|first1=Eustance|title=Major Asian markets fall more than 2% to cap week of market gyrations|date=6 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/asia-markets-coronavirus-airline-stocks-currencies-in-focus.html|access-date=6 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200306111941/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/asia-markets-coronavirus-airline-stocks-currencies-in-focus.html|archive-date=6 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Smith|first1=Elliot|last2=Amaro|first2=Silvia|title=European stocks close 3.6% lower amid coronavirus volatility; oil sector down 5.5%|date=6 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/european-stocks-amid-coronavirus-volatility.html|access-date=6 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200306100905/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/european-stocks-amid-coronavirus-volatility.html|archive-date=6 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Li|first1=Yun|title=Dow falls 250 points, ekes out a small weekly gain after a wild run|date=6 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/us-markets-dow-futures-coronavirus-us-treasury-yields.html|access-date=6 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200306053004/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/us-markets-dow-futures-coronavirus-us-treasury-yields.html|archive-date=6 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> while theմինչդեռ yieldsտասնամյա onև 1030-yearամյա andԱՄՆ 30-yearգանձապետական U.S.արժեթղթերի Treasuryգինը securitiesռեկորդային fellկերպով toանկում newէ recordգրանցել՝ lowsնվազելով underհամապատասխանաբար 0.7% andև 1.26% respectively.-ով:<ref>{{cite news|last1=Franck|first1=Thomas|title=10-year Treasury yield falls to new all-time low under 0.7% as flight to bonds continues|date=6 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/10-year-treasury-yield-falls-below-0point83percent-as-coronavirus-rocks-markets.html|access-date=6 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200306074257/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/10-year-treasury-yield-falls-below-0point83percent-as-coronavirus-rocks-markets.html|archive-date=6 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> U.S.ԱՄՆ Presidentնախագահ [[DonaldԴոնալդ TrumpԹրամփ]]<nowiki/>ը signedստորագրել intoէ lawարտակարգ anհատկացումների [[Coronavirusեւ Preparednessհամաճարակի andդեմ Responseպայքարի Supplementalմիջոցառումների Appropriationsմասին Act|emergencyօրենքը, appropriationsինչը andներառում pandemicէ countermeasures bill]] including $8.3&nbsp;billion3մլրդ inԱՄՆ governmentդոլլարի spending.պետական ծախս:<ref>{{cite news|last1=Borter|first1=Gabriella|last2=Gorman|first2=Steve|title=Coronavirus found on cruise ship as more U.S. states report cases|date=6 March 2020|agency=[[Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa/coronavirus-found-on-cruise-ship-as-more-u-s-states-report-cases-idUSKBN20T235|access-date=13 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200310072232/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-usa/coronavirus-found-on-cruise-ship-as-more-u-s-states-report-cases-idUSKBN20T235|archive-date=10 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> After [[OPEC]] and Russia failed to agree on oil production cuts on 5 March and [[2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war|Saudi Arabia and Russia both announced increases in oil production on 7 March]], [[Price of oil|oil prices]] fell by 25 percent.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Stevens|first1=Pippa|last2=Meredith|first2=Sam|title=Oil plunges 10% for worst day in more than 5 years after OPEC+ fails to agree on a massive production cut|date=6 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/oil-sinks-5percent-to-multi-year-low-on-uncertain-opec-deal.html|access-date=9 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200308230139/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/oil-sinks-5percent-to-multi-year-low-on-uncertain-opec-deal.html|archive-date=8 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Kelly|first1=Stephanie|title=Oil plunges 25%, hit by erupting Saudi-Russia oil price war|date=8 March 2020|agency=[[Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-oil/oil-prices-plunge-hit-by-erupting-saudi-russia-oil-price-war-idUSKBN20V131|access-date=9 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309181433/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-oil/oil-prices-plunge-hit-by-erupting-saudi-russia-oil-price-war-idUSKBN20V131|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> The role of cross-border flows of goods in the modern economy, driven by decades of falling transport costs, falling communication costs and, until recently, falling tariffs, also had a big role to play in impacting the stock market.<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Baker|first1=Scott|last2=Bloom|first2=Nicholas|last3=Davis|first3=Steven|last4=Kost|first4=Kyle|last5=Sammon|first5=Marco|last6=Viratyosin|first6=Tasaneeya|date=April 2020|title=The Unprecedented Stock Market Impact of COVID-19|url=http://www.nber.org/papers/w26945.pdf|language=en|location=Cambridge, MA|pages=w26945|doi=10.3386/w26945|periodical=NBER Working Paper Series|s2cid=216259704|doi-access=free}}</ref>
 
After [[OPEC]] and Russia failed to agree on oil production cuts on 5 March and [[2020 Russia–Saudi Arabia oil price war|Saudi Arabia and Russia both announced increases in oil production on 7 March]], [[Price of oil|oil prices]] fell by 25 percent.<ref>{{cite news|last1=Stevens|first1=Pippa|last2=Meredith|first2=Sam|title=Oil plunges 10% for worst day in more than 5 years after OPEC+ fails to agree on a massive production cut|date=6 March 2020|publisher=[[CNBC]]|url=https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/oil-sinks-5percent-to-multi-year-low-on-uncertain-opec-deal.html|access-date=9 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200308230139/https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/06/oil-sinks-5percent-to-multi-year-low-on-uncertain-opec-deal.html|archive-date=8 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last1=Kelly|first1=Stephanie|title=Oil plunges 25%, hit by erupting Saudi-Russia oil price war|date=8 March 2020|agency=[[Reuters]]|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-oil/oil-prices-plunge-hit-by-erupting-saudi-russia-oil-price-war-idUSKBN20V131|access-date=9 March 2020|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200309181433/https://www.reuters.com/article/us-global-oil/oil-prices-plunge-hit-by-erupting-saudi-russia-oil-price-war-idUSKBN20V131|archive-date=9 March 2020|url-status=live}}</ref> The role of cross-border flows of goods in the modern economy, driven by decades of falling transport costs, falling communication costs and, until recently, falling tariffs, also had a big role to play in impacting the stock market.<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Baker|first1=Scott|last2=Bloom|first2=Nicholas|last3=Davis|first3=Steven|last4=Kost|first4=Kyle|last5=Sammon|first5=Marco|last6=Viratyosin|first6=Tasaneeya|date=April 2020|title=The Unprecedented Stock Market Impact of COVID-19|url=http://www.nber.org/papers/w26945.pdf|language=en|location=Cambridge, MA|pages=w26945|doi=10.3386/w26945|periodical=NBER Working Paper Series|s2cid=216259704|doi-access=free}}</ref>
 
Overall, stock markets declined over 30% by March; implied volatilities of [[equities]] and oil have spiked to crisis levels; and credit spreads on non-investment grade debt have widened sharply as investors reduce risks. This heightened turmoil in global financial  markets is occurring despite the substantial and comprehensive financial reforms agreed by [[G20]] financial authorities in the post-crisis era.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oecd.org/coronavirus/policy-responses/global-financial-markets-policy-responses-to-covid-19-2d98c7e0/#section-d1e26|title=Global financial markets policy responses to COVID-19|website=OECD|language=en|access-date=14 May 2020}}</ref>