«Մասնակից:TheBabushka/Սևագրություն 1»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Ջնջվում է էջի ամբողջ պարունակությունը
Պիտակ: Reverted
(Ջնջվում է էջի ամբողջ պարունակությունը)
'''Henry Foster''' ({{Lang-en|Helmholtz Watson}}), One of Lenina's many lovers, he is a perfectly conventional Alpha male, casually discussing Lenina's body with his coworkers. His success with Lenina, and his casual attitude about it, infuriate the jealous Bernard. Henry ultimately proves himself every bit the ideal World State citizen, finding no courage to defend Lenina from John's assaults despite having maintained an uncommonly longstanding sexual relationship with her.
 
'''Benito Hoover''' ({{Lang-en|Helmholtz Watson}}), Another of Lenina's lovers. She remembers that he is particularly hairy when he takes his clothes off.
 
'''The Director of Hatcheries and Conditioning (DHC)''', also known as '''Thomas "Tomakin" Grahambell''', He is the administrator of the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre, where he is a threatening figure who intends to exile Bernard to Iceland. His plans take an unexpected turn, however, when Bernard returns from the Reservation with Linda (see below) and John, a child they both realize is actually his. This fact, scandalous and obscene in the World State not because it was extramarital (which all sexual acts are) but because it was procreative, leads the Director to resign his post in shame.
 
'''Linda''', John's mother, decanted as a Beta-Minus in the World State, originally worked in the DHC's Fertilizing Room, and subsequently lost during a storm while visiting the New Mexico Savage Reservation with the Director many years before the events of the novel. Despite following her usual precautions, Linda became pregnant with the Director's son during their time together and was therefore unable to return to the World State by the time that she found her way to Malpais. Having been conditioned to the promiscuous social norms of the World State, Linda finds herself at once popular with every man in the pueblo (because she is open to all sexual advances) and also reviled for the same reason, seen as a whore by the wives of the men who visit her and by the men themselves (who come to her nonetheless). Her only comforts there are ''mescal'' brought by Popé as well as ''[[peyote|peyotl]]''. Linda is desperate to return to the World State and to soma, wanting nothing more from her remaining life than comfort until death.
 
'''The Arch-Community-Songster''', The secular equivalent of the [[Archbishop of Canterbury]] in the World State society. He takes personal offense when John refuses to attend Bernard's party.
 
'''The Director of Crematoria and Phosphorus Reclamation''', one of the many disappointed, important figures to attend Bernard's party.
 
'''The Warden''', An Alpha-Minus, the talkative chief administrator for the New Mexico Savage Reservation. He is blond, short, broad-shouldered, and has a booming voice.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Huxley|first1=Aldous|title=Brave New World|date=1932|publisher=Harper & Brothers|isbn=978-0-06-085052-4|location=New York|page=101}}<!--|accessdate=2015-04-16--></ref>
 
'''Darwin Bonaparte''', a "big game photographer" (i.e. filmmaker) who films John flogging himself. Darwin Bonaparte is known for two other works: "feely of the gorillas' wedding",<ref name="Brave New World">{{cite book|last1=Huxley|first1=Aldous|title=Brave New World|date=1932|publisher=Harper & Brothers|isbn=978-0-06-085052-4|location=New York|page=253}}<!--|accessdate=2015-04-16--></ref> and "Sperm Whale's Love-life".<ref name="Brave New World"/> He has already made a name for himself<ref>{{cite book|last1=Huxley|first1=Aldous|title=Brave New World|date=1932|publisher=Harper & Brothers|isbn=978-0-06-085052-4|location=New York|page=252}}<!--|accessdate=2015-04-16--></ref> but still seeks more. He renews his fame by filming the savage, John, in his newest release "The Savage of Surrey".<ref>{{cite book|last1=Huxley|first1=Aldous|title=Brave New World|date=1932|publisher=Harper & Brothers|isbn=978-0-06-085052-4|location=New York|page=254}}<!--|accessdate=2015-04-16--></ref> His name alludes to [[Charles Darwin]] and [[Napoleon Bonaparte]].
 
'''Dr. Shaw''', Bernard Marx's physician who consequently becomes the physician of both Linda and John. He prescribes a lethal dose of soma to Linda, which will stop her respiratory system from functioning in a span of one to two months, at her own behest but not without protest from John. Ultimately, they all agree that it is for the best, since denying her this request would cause more trouble for Society and Linda herself.
 
'''Dr. Gaffney''', [[Provost (education)|Provost]] of Eton, an Upper School for high-caste individuals. He shows Bernard and John around the classrooms, and the Hypnopaedic Control Room (used for behavioural conditioning through sleep learning). John asks if the students read Shakespeare but the Provost says the library contains only reference books because solitary activities, such as reading, are discouraged.
 
'''Miss Keate''', [[Head teacher|Head Mistress]] of Eton Upper School. Bernard fancies her, and arranges an assignation with her.
 
===Others===
* '''[[Freemartin#Fictional use|Freemartins]]''', women who have been deliberately made sterile by exposure to male hormones during fetal development but still physically normal except for "the slightest tendency to grow beards." In the book, government policy requires freemartins to form 70% of the female population.
 
===Of Malpais===
*'''Popé''', a native of Malpais. Although he reinforces the behaviour that causes hatred for Linda in Malpais by sleeping with her and bringing her ''[[Mezcal|mescal]]'', he still holds the traditional beliefs of his tribe. In his early years John attempted to kill him, but Popé brushed off his attempt and sent him fleeing. He gave Linda a copy of the Complete Works of Shakespeare.
*'''Mitsima''', an elder tribal [[shaman]] who also teaches John survival skills such as rudimentary ceramics (specifically [[coil pot]]s, which were traditional to Native American tribes) and bow-making.
*'''Kiakimé''', a native girl who John fell for, but is instead eventually wed to another boy from Malpais.
*'''Kothlu''', a native boy with whom Kiakimé is wed.
 
===Background figures===
These are non-fictional and factual characters who lived before the events in this book, but are of note in the novel:
*'''[[Henry Ford]]''', who has become a [[messianism|messianic]] figure to the [[World state in Brave New World|World State]]. "Our Ford" is used in place of "Our Lord", as a credit to popularising the use of the [[assembly line]]. Huxley's description of Ford as a central figure in the emergence of the ''Brave New World'' might also be a reference to the utopian industrial city of ''[[Fordlândia]]'' commissioned by Ford in 1927.{{speculation inline|date=August 2014}}
*'''[[Sigmund Freud]]''', "Our Freud" is sometimes said in place of "Our Ford" because Freud's psychoanalytic method depends implicitly upon the rules of classical conditioning{{citation needed|date=November 2020}}, and because Freud popularised the idea that sexual activity is essential to human happiness. (It is also strongly implied that citizens of the World State believe Freud and Ford to be the same person.)<ref>chapter 3, "Our Ford-or Our Freud, as, for some inscrutable reason, he chose to call himself whenever he spoke of psychological matters–Our Freud had been the first to reveal the appalling dangers of family life"</ref>
*'''[[H. G. Wells]]''', "Dr. Wells", British writer and [[utopian socialism|utopian socialist]], whose book ''[[Men Like Gods]]'' was an incentive for ''Brave New World''. "All's well that ends Wells", wrote Huxley in his letters, criticising Wells for anthropological assumptions Huxley found unrealistic.
*'''[[Ivan Pavlov|Ivan Petrovich Pavlov]]''', whose conditioning techniques are used to train infants.
*'''[[William Shakespeare]]''', whose banned works are quoted throughout the novel by John, "the Savage". The plays quoted include ''[[Macbeth]]'', ''[[The Tempest]]'', ''[[Romeo and Juliet]]'', ''[[Hamlet]]'', ''[[King Lear]]'', ''[[Troilus and Cressida]]'', ''[[Measure for Measure]]'' and ''[[Othello]]''. Mustapha Mond also knows them because as a World Controller he has access to a selection of books from throughout history, including the Bible.
*'''[[Thomas Robert Malthus]]''', 19th century British economist, believed the people of the Earth would eventually be threatened by their inability to raise enough food to feed the population. In the novel, the eponymous character devises the contraceptive techniques (Malthusian belt) that are practiced by women of the World State.
*'''Reuben Rabinovitch''', the Polish-Jew character on whom the effects of sleep-learning, [[Sleep-learning|hypnopædia]], are first observed.
*'''[[John Henry Newman]]''', 19th century Catholic theologian and educator, believed university education the critical element in advancing post-industrial Western civilization. Mustapha Mond and The Savage discuss a passage from one of Newman's books.
*[[Alfred Mond, 1st Baron Melchett|'''Alfred Mond''']], British industrialist, financier and politician. He is the namesake of Mustapha Mond.<ref name="Naughton">{{Cite web|url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/nov/22/aldous-huxley-prophet-dystopia-cs-lewis|title=Aldous Huxley: the prophet of our brave new digital dystopia {{!}} John Naughton|last=Naughton|first=John|date=2013-11-22|website=The Guardian|language=en|access-date=2018-10-07}}</ref>
*'''[[Mustafa Kemal Atatürk]]''', the founder and first President of [[Turkey|Republic of Turkey]]. Naming Mond after Atatürk links up with their characteristics, he reigned during the time Brave New World was written and revolutionised the 'old' Ottoman state into a new nation.<ref name="Naughton"/>
 
===Sources of names and references===
The limited number of names that the World State assigned to its bottle-grown citizens can be traced to political and cultural figures who contributed to the bureaucratic, economic, and technological systems of Huxley's age, and presumably those systems in ''Brave New World''.<ref>{{cite book |first=Jerome |last=Meckier |editor1-last=Firchow |editor1-first=Peter Edgerly |editor2-last=Nugel |editor2-first=Bernfried |chapter=Onomastic Satire: Names and Naming in ''Brave New World'' |chapterurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=D159Z5kJa_YC&pg=PR5&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=0_1#PPA185,M1 |title=Aldous Huxley: modern satirical novelist of ideas |publisher=Lit Verlag |year=2006 |pages=187ff |isbn=3-8258-9668-4 |oclc=71165436 |accessdate=28 January 2009}}</ref>
Huxley took the name for the drug used by the state to control the population after the Vedic ritual drink [[Soma (drink)|Soma]], inspired by his interest in Indian [[mysticism]].
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