«Մասնակից:Մարի Ավետիսյան/ԱվազարկղԱ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

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[[File:KariyeCamii-Aussenansicht.jpg|thumb|Front view of Chora Church]]
 
The '''Kariye Mosque''', or formerly the '''Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora''' ({{lang-el|Ἐκκλησία τοῦ Ἁγίου Σωτῆρος ἐν τῇ Χώρᾳ|}}; {{lang-tr|Kariye Müzesi, Kariye Camii, Kariye Kilisesi}}), is a [[Middle Ages|medieval]] [[Greek Orthodox Church|Greek Orthodox]] [[Church (building)|church]]{{sfn|Ousterhout|1988}} used as a [[mosque]] today in the [[Edirnekapı, Istanbul|Edirnekapı]] neighborhood of [[Istanbul]], [[Turkey]]. The neighborhood is situated in the western part of the [[List of municipalities in İstanbul Province|municipality]] ([[:tr:Belediye|belediye]]) of the [[Fatih]] district. The Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora was built in the style of [[Byzantine architecture]]. In the 16th century, during the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman]] era, the Christian church was converted into a [[mosque]]; it became a museum in 1945, and in 2020 it was converted to a mosque.<ref name="Casper2020">{{cite web |last1=Casper |first1=Jayson |title=Turkey Turns Another Historic Church into a Mosque |url=https://www.christianitytoday.com/news/2020/august/turkey-chora-church-mosque-kariye-museum-hagia-sophia-istan.html |publisher=[[Christianity Today]] |accessdate=22 August 2020 |language=English |date=21 August 2020}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title= Turkey converts Kariye Museum into mosque |url= https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-converts-kariye-museum-into-mosque-157585|publisher=[[Hürriyet Daily News]] |accessdate=22 August 2020 |language=English |date=21 August 2020}}</ref> The interior of the building is covered with some of the oldest and finest surviving Byzantine Christian [[mosaic]]s and [[fresco]]es; they were uncovered and restored after the building was secularized and turned into a museum.
 
[[File:Kariye mosque Istanbul.jpg|thumb|Depiction of the Chora Church, c. 1900]]
 
[[File:S03 06 01 003 image 1662.jpg|thumbnail|Chora Church, Istanbul, Turkey, 1903 survey. Brooklyn Museum Archives, W. H. Goodyear Collection]]
 
==Name==
The original, 4th-century monastery containing the church, was outside Constantinople's city walls. Literally translated, the church's full name was the '''Church of the Holy Saviour in the Country''' ([[Greek language|Greek]] {{lang|el|ἡ Ἐκκλησία τοῦ Ἁγίου Σωτῆρος ἐν τῇ Χώρᾳ}}, ''hē Ekklēsia tou Hagiou Sōtēros en tēi Chōrāi''). It is therefore sometimes incorrectly referred to as "Saint Saviour". However, "The Church of the Holy Redeemer in the Fields" would be a more natural rendering of the name in English. The last part of the Greek name, '''Chora''', referring to its location originally outside of the walls, became the shortened name of the church. The name must have carried symbolic meaning, as the mosaics in the narthex describe Christ as the ''Land of the Living'' ({{lang|grc|ἡ Χώρα τῶν ζώντων}}, ''hē Chōra tōn zōntōn'') and [[Mary, the Mother of Jesus]], as the ''Container of the Uncontainable'' ({{lang|grc|ἡ Χώρα τοῦ Ἀχωρήτου}}, ''hē Chōra tou Achōrētou'').
 
==History==
{{multiple image
| width = 110
| footer = Sketch maps of the interior and ground plot of the Chora Church
| image1 = HSX Millingen 1912 fig 108-109.jpg
| image2 = HSX Millingen 1912 fig 105.jpg
}}
[[File:Chora Church Constantinople 2007 panorama 002.jpg|thumb|Rear view of Chora Church]]
 
===First phase (4th century)===
The Chora Church was originally built in the early 4th century as part of a monastery complex outside the [[Walls of Constantinople#Wall of Constantine|city walls]] of [[Constantinople]] erected by [[Constantine I (emperor)|Constantine the Great]], to the south of the [[Golden Horn]]. However, when [[Theodosius II]] built his formidable [[Walls of Constantinople#Theodosian Walls|land walls]] in 413–414, the church became incorporated within the city's defences, but retained the name Chora (for the presumed symbolism of the name see [[#Name|above]]).
 
===2nd phase (11th century)===
The majority of the fabric of the current building dates from 1077–1081, when [[Maria of Bulgaria|Maria Dukaina]], the adoptive mother[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexios_I_Komnenos#cite_note-Norwich_1995,_p._5-12] of [[Alexius I Comnenus]], rebuilt the Chora Church as an [[Cross-in-square|inscribed cross]] or ''quincunx'': a popular architectural style of the time. Early in the 12th century, the church suffered a partial collapse, perhaps due to an [[earthquake]].
 
===3rd phase: new decoration (14th century)===
The church was rebuilt by [[Isaac Komnenos (son of Alexios I)|Isaac Comnenus]], Alexius's third son. However, it was only after the third phase of building, two centuries after, that the church as it stands today was completed. The powerful Byzantine statesman [[Theodore Metochites]] endowed the church with many of its fine [[mosaic]]s and [[fresco]]s. Theodore's impressive decoration of the interior was carried out between 1315 and 1321. The mosaic-work is the finest example of the [[Byzantine art#Palaeologan Age|Palaeologian Renaissance]]. The artists remain unknown. In 1328, Theodore was sent into exile by the usurper [[Andronicus III Palaeologus]]. However, he was allowed to return to the city two years later, and lived out the last two years of his life as a [[monk]] in his Chora Church.
 
===Until the Fall of Constantinople===
In the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the monastery was home to the scholar [[Maximus Planudes]], who was responsible for the restoration and reintroduction of [[Claudius Ptolemy|Ptolemy]]'s [[Ptolemy's Geography|''Geography'']] to the Byzantines and, ultimately, to [[Renaissance Italy]]. During the last [[Fall of Constantinople|siege of Constantinople]] in 1453, the [[Icon]] of the [[Theotokos]] [[Hodegetria]], considered the protector of the City, was brought to Chora in order to assist the defenders against the assault of the [[Ottomans]].<ref>Van Millingen</ref>
 
===Kariye Mosque (c. 1500–1945)===
Around fifty years after the fall of the city to the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottomans]], [[Hadım Ali Pasha|Atık Ali Pasha]], the [[Grand Vizier]] of Sultan [[Bayezid II]], ordered the Chora Church to be converted into a [[mosque]] — ''Kariye Camii''. The word Kariye derived from the Greek name Chora.<ref>{{cite web |title=About Chora |url=https://www.choramuseum.com |publisher=choramuseum}}</ref> Due to the [[iconoclasm|prohibition against iconic images]] in [[Islam]], the mosaics and frescoes were covered behind a layer of plaster. This and frequent earthquakes in the region have taken their toll on the artwork.
 
===Museum, art restoration (1945–2020)===
In 1945, the building was designated a museum by the Turkish government.<ref name=Yackley>{{cite web |url=https://www.theartnewspaper.com/news/court-ruling-converting-turkish-museum-to-mosque-could-set-precedent-for-hagia-sophia |title=Court Ruling Converting Turkish Museum to Mosque Could Set Precedent for Hagia Sophia |last=Yackley |first=Ayla |date=3 December 2019 |publisher=The Art Newspaper |access-date=9 December 2019}}</ref> In 1948, Americans [[Thomas Whittemore]] and Paul A. Underwood, from the [[Byzantine Institute of America]] and the [[Dumbarton Oaks]] Center for Byzantine Studies, sponsored a restoration program. From that time on, the building ceased to be a functioning mosque. In 1958, it was opened to the public as a museum — ''Kariye Müzesi''.
 
===Reconversion to a mosque (2020–)===
In 2005, the Association of Permanent Foundations and Service to Historical Artifacts and Environment filed a lawsuit to challenge the status of the Chora Church as a museum.<ref>{{cite web |last1=Kokkinidis |first1=Tassos |title=Turkey to Turn Historic Orthodox Church Into a Mosque; Is Hagia Sophia Next? |url=https://eu.greekreporter.com/2019/11/21/turkey-to-turn-historic-orthodox-church-into-a-mosque-is-hagia-sophia-next/ |publisher=Greek Reporter |accessdate=10 July 2020}}</ref> In November 2019, the [[Turkish Council of State]], Turkey's highest administrative court, ordered that it was to be reconverted to a mosque.<ref name=Yackley/> In August 2020, its status changed to a mosque.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-converts-kariye-museum-into-mosque-157585 |title=Turkey converts Kariye Museum into mosque |date=21 August 2020 |publisher= Hürriyet Daily News website |access-date=21 August 2020}}</ref>
 
The move to convert Chora Church into a mosque was widely condemned by Greek Orthodox and Protestant Christians in Turkey.<ref name="Casper2020"/> This caused a sharp rebuke by Turkey.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-slams-greece-over-statement-on-conversion-of-kariye-museum-to-mosque-157599|title=Turkey slams Greece over statement on conversion of Kariye Museum to mosque|date=22 August 2020|publisher= Hürriyet Daily News website|access-date=24 August 2020}}</ref>
 
==Interior==
The Chora Church is not as large as some of the other surviving Byzantine churches of Istanbul (it covers 742.5 m²) but it is unique among them, because of its almost completely still extant internal decoration. The building divides into three main areas: the entrance hall or ''[[narthex]]'', the main body of the church or ''[[nave|naos]]'' (nave), and the side [[chapel]] or ''[[parecclesion]]''. The building has six [[dome]]s: two above the ''esonarthex'', one above the ''parecclesion'' and three above the ''naos''.
 
[[File:Meister der Kahriye-Cami-Kirche in Istanbul 005.jpg|thumb|Mosaic of the enrollment for taxation before [[Quirinius|Governor Quirinius]]]]
<div class="tright" style="clear:none">[[File:Meister der Kahriye-Cami-Kirche in Istanbul 004.jpg|thumb|none|Mosaic of the journey to [[Bethlehem]]]]</div>
[[File:Chorachrist.jpg|thumb|The mosaic in the lunette over the doorway to the esonarthex portrays Christ as “The Land of the Living”.]]
<div class="tright" style="clear:none">[[File:Chora Church Constantinople (6).JPG|thumb|none|Mosaic of enthroned Christ with [[Theodore Metochites]] presenting a model of his church]]</div>
 
===Narthex===
The main, west door of the Chora Church opens into the [[narthex]]. It divides north-south into the outer, or ''exonarthex'' and the inner, or ''esonarthex''.
 
====Outer narthex (''exonarthex'')====
[[File:StPeter-mosaic-from-Chora-church-in-Istanbul.jpg|thumb|upright|Saint Peter [[mosaic]]]]
 
The exonarthex (or outer narthex) is the first part of the church that one enters. It is a transverse corridor, 4 m wide and 23 m long, which is partially open on its eastern length into the parallel esonarthex. The southern end of the exonarthex opens out through the esonarthex forming a western ante-chamber to the parecclesion. The mosaics that decorate the exonarthex include:
 
# Joseph's dream and journey to Bethlehem;
# Enrollment for taxation;
# Nativity, birth of Christ;
# Journey of the Magi;
# Inquiry of King Herod;
# Flight into Egypt;
# Two frescoes of the massacres ordered by King Herod;
# Mothers mourning for their children;
# Flight of Elizabeth, mother of John the Baptist;
# Joseph dreaming, return of the holy family from Egypt to Nazareth;
# Christ taken to Jerusalem for the Passover;
# John the Baptist bearing witness to Christ;
# Miracle;
# Three more Miracles.
# Jesus Christ;
# Virgin and Angels praying.
 
====Inner narthex (''esonarthex'')====
[[File:HSX Mary genealogy.jpg|thumb|Mosaic of the Virgin Mother with child, north dome of the inner narthex]]
[[File:Chora Christ south coupole.jpg|thumb|Mosaic of [[Christ Pantocrator]], south dome of the inner narthex]]
 
The esonarthex (or inner narthex) is similar to the exonarthex, running parallel to it. Like the exonarthex, the esonarthex is 4 m wide, but it is slightly shorter, 18 m long. Its central, eastern door opens into the naos, whilst another door, at the southern end of the esonarthex opens into the rectangular ante-chamber of the parecclesion. At its northern end, a door from the esonarthex leads into a broad west-east corridor that runs along the northern side of the naos and into the [[Prothesis (altar)|prothesis]]. The esonarthex has two domes. The smaller is above the entrance to the northern corridor; the larger is midway between the entrances into the naos and the pareclession.
 
# Enthroned Christ with [[Theodore Metochites]] presenting a model of his church;
# [[Saint Peter]];
# [[Paul of Tarsus|Saint Paul]];
# [[Deesis]], Christ and the Virgin Mary (without John the Baptist) with two donors below;
# Genealogy of Christ;
# Religious and noble ancestors of Christ.
 
The mosaics in the first three bays of the inner narthex give an account of the [[Life of the Virgin]], and her parents. Some of them are as follows:
# Rejection of [[Joachim|Joachim's]] offerings;
# Annunciation of [[Saint Anne]], the angel of the Lord announcing to Anne that her prayer for a child has been heard;
# Meeting of Joachim and Anne;
# Birth of the Virgin Mary;
# First seven steps of the Virgin;
# The Virgin given affection by her parents;
# The Virgin blessed by the priests;
# Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple;
# The Virgin receiving bread from an Angel;
# The Virgin receiving the skein of purple wool, as the priests decided to have the attendant maidens weave a veil for the Temple;
# [[Zechariah (priest)|Zechariah]] praying, when it was time for the Virgin to marry, High Priest Zechariah called all the widowers together and placed their rods on the altar, praying for a sign showing to whom she should be given;
# The Virgin entrusted to Joseph;
# Joseph taking the Virgin to his house;
# [[Annunciation]] to the Virgin at the well;
# Joseph leaving the Virgin, Joseph had to leave for six months on business and when he returned the Virgin was pregnant and he is suspicious of that.
 
[[File:HSX Koimetesis.jpg|thumb|Mosaic of the ''Koimesis'' in the Naos]]
 
===Nave (''naos'')===
The central doors of the esonarthex lead into the main body of the church, the ''naos''. The largest dome in the church (7.7 m diameter) is above the centre of the naos. Two smaller domes flank the modest [[apse]]: the northern dome is over the [[Prothesis (altar)|prothesis]], which is linked by short passage to the [[bema]]; the southern dome is over the [[diaconicon]], which is reached via the parecclesion.
<gallery>
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos june 2019 2361.jpg|Naos view towards apse
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Jesus Christ june 2019 2372.jpg|Christ
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Theodokos june 2019 2375.jpg|[[Madonna and child|Mary and child]]
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Theodokos june 2019 2378.jpg|Mary and child detail
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos june 2019 2344.jpg| Dormition Position above door
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Dormition june 2019 2393.jpg|[[Dormition of Mary]] total
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Dormition june 2019 2371.jpg|Dormition central part
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Dormition june 2019 2370.jpg|Dormition Mary
File:Istanbul Kariye museum Naos Dormition june 2019 2380.jpg|Dormition Mary in "sleep"
</gallery>
 
# ''Koimesis'', the [[Assumption of Mary|Dormition of the Virgin]]. Before ascending to Heaven, her last sleep. Jesus is holding an infant, symbol of Mary's soul;
# Jesus Christ;
# ''Theodokos'', the Virgin Mary with child.
 
[[File:Chora Church Constantinople 2007 010.jpg|thumb|View into the ''[[parecclesion]]'']]
 
===Side chapel (''parecclesion'')===
To the right of the esonarthex, doors open into the side chapel, or ''parecclesion''. The parecclesion was used as a mortuary chapel for family burials and memorials. The second largest dome (4.5 m diameter) in the church graces the centre of the roof of the parecclesion. A small passageway links the parecclesion directly into the naos, and off this passage can be found a small oratory and a storeroom. The parecclesion is covered in [[fresco]]es:
 
# [[Resurrection|Anastasis]], the Resurrection. Christ, who had just broken down the gates of hell, is standing in the middle and pulling Adam and Eve out of their tombs. Behind Adam stand John the Baptist, David, and Solomon. Others are righteous kings;
# Second coming of Christ, the last judgment. Jesus is enthroned and on both sides the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist (this trio is also called the Deesis);
# Virgin and Child;
# Heavenly Court of Angels;
# Two panels of Moses.
 
<gallery widths="220" height="150">
Chora Church Constantinople 2007 013.jpg|The [[Resurrection|Anastasis]] fresco in the ''parecclesion'' of the Chora Church.
Istanbul Chora Church 01.jpg|The Virgin and child, painted dome of the [[parecclesion]] of Chora Church.
Chorachurchfresco.jpg|Close-up of the Virgin Mother with child, dome of the parecclesion
</gallery>
 
==See also==
*[[Icon of the Hodegetria]]
*[[Monastery of the Panaghia Hodegetria]]
*[[Church of the Virgin Pammakaristos]]
*[[History of Roman and Byzantine domes]]
 
==Notes==
{{reflist}}
 
==References==
*{{cite book|last=Van Millingen|first=Alexander | authorlink= Alexander van Millingen|year=1912|title=Byzantine Churches in Constantinople|url=https://archive.org/details/byzantinechurche014623mbp|publisher=MacMillan & Co|location=London|id=}}
*{{cite book|last=Ousterhout|first=Robert|year=2002|title=The Art of the Kariye Camii|publisher=Scala|location=London-Istanbul|isbn=975-6899-76-X}}
 
==Literature==
* ''Chora: The Kariye Museum''. Net Turistik Yayınlar (1987). {{ISBN|978-975-479-045-0}}
* Feridun Dirimtekin. ''The historical monument of Kariye''. Türkiye Turing ve Otomobil Kurumu (1966). ASIN B0007JHABQ
* Semavi Eyice. ''Kariye Mosque Church of Chora Monastery''. Net Turistik Yayınlar A.Ş. (1997). {{ISBN|978-975-479-444-1}}
* Çelik Gülersoy. ''Kariye (Chora)''. ASIN B000RMMHZ2
* Jonathan Harris, ''Constantinople: Capital of Byzantium''. Hambledon/Continuum (2007). {{ISBN|978-1-84725-179-4}}
* Karahan, Anne. ''Byzantine Holy Images – Transcendence and Immanence. The Theological Background of the Iconography and Aesthetics of the Chora Church'' (monography, 355 pp) (''Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta'' No. 176) Leuven-Paris-Walpole, MA: Peeters Publishers 2010.{{ISBN|978-90-429-2080-4}}
* Karahan, Anne. “The Paleologan Iconography of the Chora Church and its Relation to Greek Antiquity”. In: ''Journal of Art History'' 66 (1997), Issue 2 & 3: pp.&nbsp;89–95 Routhledge (Taylor & Francis Group online publication 1 September 2008: DOI:10.1080/00233609708604425) 1997
* Krannert Art Museum. ''Restoring Byzantium: The Kariye Camii in Istanbul and the Byzantine Institute Restoration''. Miriam & IRA D. Wallach Art Gallery (2004). {{ISBN|1-884919-15-4}}
* {{cite book |first=Robert G. |last=Ousterhout |year=1988 |title=The Architecture of the Kariye Camii in Istanbul |publisher=Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection |isbn=978-0-88402-165-0 |ref=harv }}
* Robert Ousterhout (Editor), Leslie Brubaker (Editor). ''The Sacred Image East and West''. University of Illinois Press (1994). {{ISBN|978-0-252-02096-4}}
* ''Saint Saviour in Chora''. A Turizm Yayınları Ltd. (1988). ASIN B000FK8854
* Cevdet Turkay. ''Kariye Mosque''. (1964). ASIN B000IUWV2C
* Paul A. Underwood. ''The Kariye Djami'' in 3 Volumes. Bollingen (1966). ASIN B000WMDL7U
* Paul A. Underwood. ''Third Preliminary Report on the Restoration of the Frescoes in the Kariye Camii at Istanbul''. Harvard University Press (1958). ASIN B000IBCESM
* Edda Renker Weissenbacher. ''Kariye: The Chora Church, Step by Step''. ASIN B000RBATF8
 
==External links==
{{commons category}}
* [https://muze.gen.tr Official Chora Museum Website]
* [http://www.columbia.edu/cu/wallach/exhibitions/Byzantium/ Columbia University | Restoring Byzantium | The Kariye Camii in Istanbul and the Byzantine Institute Restoration]
* [http://www.byzantium1200.com/chora.html Byzantium 1200 | Chora Monastery]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20060909095752/http://rubens.anu.edu.au/raid1/turkey2/cd7/istanbul/churches/s_saviour_in_chora_kariye_camii/ Interior and exterior pictures in http://rubens.anu.edu.au] (Dead link)
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20061101130836/http://www.e-turkey.net/v/istanbul_kariye_museum_chora_church/ Photos with explanations]
* [http://eikonografos.com/album/thumbnails.php?album=96 BYZANTINE MOSAICS OF CHORA MONASTERY]
* [http://www.pbase.com/dosseman/istanbul_kariye Well over 500 pictures of the Chora museum]
 
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{{Churches and Monasteries of Constantinople}}
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[[Category:Church buildings with domes]]
[[Category:Byzantine church buildings in Istanbul]]
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[[Category:Religious museums in Turkey]]
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