«Մասնակից:TonJ/Ավազարկղ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
 
{{For|the song|Black History Month (song)}}
{{Infobox scientist
{{pp|small=yes}}
| name = Paul Ekman
{{sprotected|small=yes}}
| image = Paulekman bio.jpg
{{Infobox holiday
| birth_date = {{birth-date and age|February 15, 1934}}
|holiday_name = Black History Month
| birth_place = [[Washington, D.C.]], United States
|type field = [[Psychology]]<br>[[Anthropology]]national
|image = An Ernie Pryor original painting dedicated to the Black United Students @ Kent State University.jpg
| doctoral_advisor = [[John Amsden Starkweather]]
|imagesize =
| doctoral_students =
|caption = A painting dedicated to the founders of Black History Month, the Black United Students at [[Kent State University]], by Ernie Pryor.<ref name=DKS>Lou Veal, [http://dks.library.kent.edu/cgi-bin/kentstate?a=d&d=dks19700203-01.2.10&e=-------en-20--1--txt-txIN-------# "'Black History Month' begins with opening of culture center"], ''Daily Kent Stater'', Volume LV, Number 52, February 3, 1970, Kent State University.</ref>
|influences =[[Charles Darwin]], [[Silvan Tomkins]]
|nickname = African-American History Month
|spouse = Mary Ann Mason
|observedby = [[United States]], [[Canada]],<ref name=CanBHMstamp2014>Wayde Compton, [http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/remembering-hogan-s-alley-hub-of-vancouver-s-black-community-1.3448080 "Remembering Hogan's Alley, hub of Vancouver's black community"], ''CBC News'', February 14, 2016.</ref> [[United Kingdom]],<ref name=BHMUKTheresaMay>[http://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/article/section/bhm-intros/6962/ "Black History Month Introduction; Prime Minister, Theresa May"], September 28, 2016.</ref> [[Germany]],<ref name=HamburgBHM2017>{{cite web|url=https://www.facebook.com/bhmhamburg/photos/a.10152041200799563/10154601922004563/?type=3|title=Black History Month Hamburg|website=www.facebook.com}}</ref> [[Netherlands]]<ref name=NetherlandsBHM2011>[http://afroeurope.blogspot.com/2011/02/black-history-month-2011-association-of.html "Black History Month 2011 – The Association of Students of African Heritage (ASAH) Netherlands"], Afro-Europe, February 1, 2011.</ref>
|known_for = [[Microexpressions]], ''[[Lie to Me]]''
|litcolor =
|awards = Named by the American Psychological Association as one of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century based on publications, citations and awards (2001)<br> Honorary Degree, University of Fernando Pessoa, Portugal (2008)<br> Honorary Doctor of Humane Letters, Adelphi University (2008)<br> Honorary Degree, University of Geneva, Switzerland (2008)<br> Named of the 100 Most Influential People in the World by Time Magazine (2009)<br> Honorary Degree, Lund University, Sweden (2011)
|longtype =
|website={{url|https://www.paulekman.com|PaulEkman.com}}
|significance = Celebration of [[African-American history]]
|begins =
|ends =
|date = February (North America)<br/>October (Europe)
|frequency = Annual
|duration = 1 month
}}
 
'''Սևամորթների պատմության ամիս''' is an annual observance originating in the United States, where it is also known as '''African-American History Month'''. It has received official recognition from governments in the United States and Canada, and more recently has been observed unofficially in Ireland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. It began as a way of remembering important people and events in the history of the [[African diaspora]]. It is celebrated in February in the United States<ref name=Involvement>{{cite web|last=Wilson|first=Milton|title=Involvement/2 Years Later: A Report On Programming In The Area Of Black Student Concerns At Kent State University, 1968–1970|url=http://speccoll.library.kent.edu/faculty/mwilson.html|work=Special Collections and Archives: Milton E. Wilson, Jr. papers, 1965–1994|publisher=[[Kent State University]]|accessdate=September 28, 2012}}</ref> and Canada,<ref name=AboutCIC>{{cite web|title=About Black History Month|url=http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/black/background.asp|publisher=[[Citizenship and Immigration Canada]]|accessdate=February 14, 2012|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120201054700/http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/black/background.asp|archivedate=February 1, 2012}}</ref> while in Ireland, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom it is observed in October.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.thejournal.ie/black-history-month-ireland-1703855-Oct2014/|title=Ireland becomes fourth country in world to celebrate Black History Month|first=Órla|last=Ryan|website=TheJournal.ie}}</ref><ref name=BHMdotORG>{{cite web|title=BHM365|url=http://www.blackhistorymonth.org.uk/|publisher=Black History Month 365|accessdate=March 13, 2017}}</ref><ref name=NetherlandsBHM2011/>
'''Paul Ekman''' (born February 15, 1934) is an [[United States|American]] [[psychologist]] and professor emeritus at the [[University of California, San Francisco]] who is a pioneer in the study of [[emotion]]s and their relation to [[facial expression]]s. He has created an "atlas of emotions" with more than ten thousand facial expressions, and has gained a reputation as the best human [[lie detector]] in the world.
He was ranked 59th out of the 100 most cited psychologists of the twentieth century.<ref>Haggbloom, S. J. et al. (2002). The 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. ''Review of General Psychology''. Vol. 6, No. 2, 139–15. Haggbloom and his team combined 3 quantitative variables: citations in professional journals, citations in textbooks, and nominations in a survey given to members of the [[Association for Psychological Science]], with 3 qualitative variables (converted to quantitative scores): [[National Academy of Science]] (NAS) membership, American Psychological Association (APA) President and/or recipient of the APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award, and surname used as an eponym. Then the list was rank ordered. Ekman was #59.</ref> Ekman conducted seminal research on the specific biological correlations of specific emotions, attempting to demonstrate the universality and discreteness of emotions in a Darwinian approach.<ref>"Facial expression of emotion". In V.S. Ramachandran (Ed.), ''Encyclopedia of Human Behavior'' (Vol. 2, pp. 173–83). Oxford: Elsevier/Academic Press. {{ISBN|978-008-088-575-9}}.</ref><ref name="Ekman">{{cite journal|title=Paul Ekman|journal=American Psychologist|date=April 1992|volume=47|issue=4|pages=470–71|doi=10.1037/0003-066x.47.4.470|last1=No Authorship Indicated}}</ref>
 
==Biography History ==
[[File:Carter G Woodson portrait.jpg|thumb|[[Carter G. Woodson]] (1875–1950)]]
{{external media | width = 210px | align = right | video1 = {{YouTube|IA8nYZg4VnI|Conversations with History: Paul Ekman}}, [[University of California Television]], 58:00, April 2008
}}
 
=== ChildhoodNegro History Week (1926) ===
The precursor to Black History Month was created in 1926 in the United States, when historian [[Carter G. Woodson]] and the [[Association for the Study of Negro Life and History]] announced the second week of February to be "Negro History Week".<ref name=Scott>Daryl Michael Scott, [http://www.asalh.org/blackhistorymonthorigins.html "The Origins of Black History Month,"] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130214045303/http://www.asalh.org/blackhistorymonthorigins.html |date=February 14, 2013 }} Association for the Study of African American Life and History, 2011, www.asalh.org/</ref> This week was chosen because it coincided with the [[Lincoln's Birthday|birthday of Abraham Lincoln]] on February 12 and of [[Frederick Douglass]] on February 14, both of which dates black communities had celebrated together since the late 19th century.<ref name=Scott /> Negro History Week was the center of the equation. The thought-process behind the week was never recorded, but scholars acknowledge two reasons for its birth: recognition and importance.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Reddick|first=L.D|date=January–June 2002|title=25 Negro History Weeks|journal=The Negro History Bulletin|volume=65|pages=}}</ref> Woodson felt deeply that at least one week would allow for the general movement to become something annually celebrated. Also, after the ten year long haul to successfully complete his "Journal of Negro History", he realized the subject deserved to resonate with a greater audience.
Paul Ekman was born in 1934 in [[Washington, D.C.]], and grew up in a Jewish family<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.jinfo.org/Psychologists_100_Most_Eminent.html|title=Jews Among the 100 Most Eminent Psychologists of the Twentieth Century|website=www.jinfo.org|access-date=2019-05-31}}</ref> in [[New Jersey]], [[Washington (state)|Washington]], [[Oregon]], and [[California]]. His father was a pediatrician and his mother was an attorney. His sister, Joyce Steingart, is a psychoanalytic psychologist who before her retirement practiced in [[New York City]].<ref name="Ekman"/>
 
From the event's initial phase, primary emphasis was placed on encouraging the coordinated teaching of the history of American blacks in the nation's [[state school|public schools]]. The first Negro History Week was met with a lukewarm response, gaining the cooperation of the Departments of Education of the states of [[North Carolina]], [[Delaware]], and [[West Virginia]] as well as the city school administrations of [[Baltimore]] and [[Washington, D.C.]].<ref name=Woodson238>C.G. Woodson, "Negro History Week," ''Journal of Negro History,'' vol. 11, no. 2 (April 1926), p. 238.</ref> Despite this far from universal observance, the event was regarded by Woodson as "one of the most fortunate steps ever taken by the Association", and plans for a repeat of the event on an annual basis continued apace.<ref name=Woodson238 />
Ekman originally wanted to be a psychotherapist, but when he was drafted into the army in 1958 he found that research could change army routines, making them more humane. This experience converted him from wanting to be a psychotherapist to wanting to be a researcher, in order to help as many people as possible.<ref>http://search.proquest.com/docview/229138171</ref>
 
At the time of Negro History Week's launch, Woodson contended that the teaching of black history was essential to ensure the physical and intellectual survival of the race within broader society:
=== Education ===
At the age of 15, without graduating from high school, Paul Ekman enrolled at the [[University of Chicago]] where he completed three years of undergraduate study. During his time in Chicago he was fascinated by [[group therapy]] sessions and understanding group dynamics. Notably, his classmates at Chicago included writer [[Susan Sontag]], film director [[Mike Nichols]], and actress [[Elaine May]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people4/Ekman/ekman-con1.html |title=Conversation with Paul Ekman, p. 1 of 5 |publisher=Globetrotter.berkeley.edu |date=2004-03-11 |accessdate=2014-03-03}}</ref>
 
{{quote|If a race has no history, it has no worthwhile tradition, it becomes a negligible factor in the thought of the world, and it stands in danger of being exterminated. The American Indian left no continuous record. He did not appreciate the value of tradition; and where is he today? The Hebrew keenly appreciated the value of tradition, as is attested by the Bible itself. In spite of worldwide persecution, therefore, he is a great factor in our civilization.<ref>Woodson, "Negro History Week", p. 239.</ref>}}
He then studied two years at [[New York University]] (NYU), earning his BA in 1954.<ref name="Ekman"/> The subject of his first research project, under the direction of his NYU professor, Margaret Tresselt, was an attempt to develop a test of how people would respond to group therapy.<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45">Ekman, P. (1987). "A life's pursuit." In ''The Semiotic Web '86: An International Yearkbook'', Sebeok, T. A.; Umiker-Seboek, J., Eds. Berlin, Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 3–45.</ref>
 
By 1929, ''[[The Journal of Negro History]]'' was able to note that with only two exceptions, officials with the State Departments of Educations of "every state with considerable Negro population" had made the event known to that state's teachers and distributed official literature associated with the event".<ref>"Negro History Week: The Fourth Year", ''Journal of Negro History'', vol. 14, no. 2 (April 1929), p. 109.</ref> Churches also played a significant role in the distribution of literature in association with Negro History Week during this initial interval, with the mainstream and black press aiding in the publicity effort.<ref>"Negro History Week: The Fourth Year", p. 110.</ref>
Next, Ekman was accepted into the [[Adelphi University]] graduate program for [[clinical psychology]].<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/> While working for his master's degree, Ekman was awarded a predoctoral research fellowship from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in 1955.<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/> His Master's thesis was focused on facial expression and body movement he had begun to study in 1954.<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/> Ekman eventually went on to receive his Ph.D. in [[clinical psychology]] at [[Adelphi University]] in 1958, after a one-year internship at the [[Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute]].<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/><ref>Eissner, B. Paul Ekman PH.D. '58, '08: East Meets West. http://profiles.adelphi.edu/profile/paul-ekman/ http://www.adelphi.edu/adelphi-magazine/Adelphi-Magazine-Fall-2008.pdf.</ref>
 
Negro History Week was met with enthusiastic response; it prompted the creation of black history clubs, an increase in interest among teachers, and interest from progressive whites. Negro History Week grew in popularity throughout the following decades, with mayors across the United States endorsing it as a holiday.<ref name=Scott />
=== Military service ===
Ekman was drafted into the U.S. Army in 1958 to serve 2 years as soon as his internship at Langley Porter was finished.<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/> He served as first lieutenant-chief psychologist, at Fort Dix, New Jersey, where he did research on army stockades and psychological changes during infantry basic training.<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/><ref>American Psychologist (April 1992), "Paul Ekman" 47 (4), pp. 470–71</ref><ref>{{cite journal | last1 = Ekman | first1 = P. | last2 = Cohen | first2 = L. | last3 = Moos | first3 = R. | last4 = Raine | first4 = W. | last5 = Schlesinger | first5 = M. | last6 = Stone | first6 = G. | year = 1963 | title = Divergent Reactions to the Threat of War | url = | journal = Science | volume = 139| issue = 3550| pages = 88–94 | doi = 10.1126/science.139.3550.88 | pmid=17798702}}</ref><ref>Ekman, P.; Friesen, W.V.; Lutzker, D.R., "Psychological Reactions to Infantry Basic Training". Medicine, U. o. C. S. o., Ed. http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Psychological-Reactions-To-Infantry-Basic-Training.pdf</ref>
 
On February 21, 2016, 106-year Washington D.C. resident and school volunteer [[Virginia McLaurin]] visited the [[White House]] as part of Black History Month. When asked by the president why she was there, McLaurin said, "A black president. A black wife. And I’m here to celebrate black history. That's what I'm here for."<ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.ctvnews.ca/world/i-am-so-happy-106-year-old-woman-dances-with-joy-as-she-meets-obama-1.2787437|title='I am so happy': 106-year-old woman dances with joy as she meets Obama|date=February 22, 2016|work=CTVNews|access-date=December 1, 2018|language=en-CA}}</ref>
=== Career ===
 
=== United States: Black History Month (1970) ===
Upon completion of military service in 1960, he accepted a position as a research associate with Leonard Krasner at the Palo Alto Veterans Administration Hospital, working on a grant focused on the operant conditioning of verbal behavior in psychiatric patients. Ekman also met anthropologist [[Gregory Bateson]] in 1960 who was on the staff of the Palo Alto Veterans Administration Hospital. Five years later, Gregory Bateson gave Paul Ekman motion picture films taken in Bali in the mid-1930s to help Ekman with cross-cultural studies of expression and gesture.<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/>
[[File:Kuumba House - Black United Students 1st Black Culture Center 1969.jpg|thumb|The Black United Students first Black culture center (Kuumba House) where many events of the first Black History Month celebration took place.]] Black History Month was first proposed by black educators and the [[Black United Students]] at [[Kent State University]] in February 1969. The first celebration of Black History Month took place at Kent State one year later, from January 2, 1970 – February 28, 1970.<ref name=Involvement />
 
Six years later, Black History Month was being celebrated all across the country in educational institutions, centers of Black culture and community centers, both great and small, when President [[Gerald Ford]] recognized Black History Month, during the celebration of the [[United States Bicentennial]]. He urged Americans to "seize the opportunity to honor the too-often neglected accomplishments of black Americans in every area of endeavor throughout our history".<ref>{{cite web|title=President Gerald R. Ford's Message on the Observance of Black History Month|url=http://www.ford.utexas.edu/library/speeches/760074.htm|work=[[Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum]]|publisher=[[University of Texas]]|accessdate=February 14, 2012|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130119095146/http://www.ford.utexas.edu/library/speeches/760074.htm|archivedate=2013-01-19}}</ref>
From 1960 to 1963, Ekman was supported by a post doctoral fellowship from NIMH. He submitted his first research grant through San Francisco State College with himself as the principal investigator (PI) at the young age of 29.<ref name="ReferenceA">Ekman, P. (1987). '"A life's pursuit". In ''The Semiotic Web '86: An International Yearkbook'', Sebeok, T. A.; Umiker-Seboek, J., Eds. Berlin, Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 3–45</ref> He received this grant from the [[National Institute of Mental Health]] (NIMH) in 1963 to study nonverbal behaviour. This award would be continuously renewed for the next 40 years and would pay his salary until he was offered a professorship at the [[University of California, San Francisco]] (UCSF) in 1972.
 
=== United Kingdom (1987) ===
Encouraged by his college friend and teacher [[Silvan Tomkins|Silvan S. Tomkins]], Ekman shifted his focus from body movement to facial expressions. He wrote his most famous book, ''Telling Lies'', and published it in 1985. The 4th edition is still in print. He retired in 2004 as professor of [[psychology]] in the Department of [[Psychiatry]] at the [[University of California, San Francisco]] (UCSF). From 1960 to 2004 he also worked at the [[Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute]] on a limited basis consulting on various clinical cases.
Black History Month was first celebrated in the United Kingdom in 1987. It was organised through the leadership of [[Ghana]]ian analyst [[Akyaaba Addai-Sebo]], who had served as a coordinator of special projects for the [[Greater London Council]] (GLC) and created a collaboration to get it underway.<ref>Kubara Zamani, [http://everygeneration.co.uk/index.php/black-british-history/bhm-black-history-month/24-akyaaba-addai-sebo "Akyaaba Addai-Sebo Interview"], Every Generation Media, reprinted from ''New African'' magazine.</ref> It was first celebrated in London.<ref name=BHMUK>{{cite web|title=Black History Month FAQ|url=http://www.black-history-month.co.uk/sitea/BHM_FAQ.html|publisher=Black History Month|accessdate=February 14, 2012|url-status=dead|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120221055929/http://www.black-history-month.co.uk/sitea/BHM_FAQ.html|archivedate=February 21, 2012}}</ref>
 
=== Canada (1995) ===
After retiring from the University of California, San Francisco, Paul Ekman founded the Paul Ekman Group (PEG) and Paul Ekman International.<ref name="paulekman.com">{{cite web|url=http://www.paulekman.com/about-paul-ekman-group-llc/ |title=About Paul Ekman Group LLC |publisher=Paulekman.com |accessdate=2014-03-03}}</ref>
In 1995, after a motion by politician [[Jean Augustine]], representing the riding of [[Etobicoke—Lakeshore]] in Ontario, Canada's [[House of Commons of Canada|House of Commons]] officially recognized February as Black History Month and honored [[Black Canadians]]. In 2008, Senator [[Donald Oliver]] moved to have the [[Senate of Canada|Senate]] officially recognize Black History Month, which was unanimously approved.<ref name=AboutCIC />
 
=== MediaRepublic of Ireland (2010) ===
[[Ireland’s Great Hunger Museum|Ireland's Great Hunger Institute]], at [[Quinnipiac University]] in [[Connecticut]], notes: “Black History Month Ireland was initiated in Cork in 2010. This location seems particularly appropriate as, in the 19th century, the city was a leading center of abolition, and the male and female anti-slavery societies welcomed a number of black abolitionists to lecture there, including Charles Lenox Remond and Frederick Douglass."<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.irishcentral.com/news/how-ireland-is-celebrating-national-black-history-month |title=How Ireland is celebrating its National Black History Month |date=October 12, 2018 |website=IrishCentral.com }}</ref>
In 2001, Ekman collaborated with [[John Cleese]] for the [[BBC]] [[documentary film|documentary]] series ''[[The Human Face]]''.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://lifeboat.com/ex/bios.paul |title=Lifeboat Foundation Bios: Dr. Paul Ekman |publisher=Lifeboat.com |date=2002-09-16 |accessdate=2014-03-03 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20140105022238/http://lifeboat.com/ex/bios.paul |archivedate=2014-01-05 }}</ref>
 
== Criticism ==
His work is frequently referred to in the TV series ''[[Lie to Me]]''.<ref name="The 2009">"The (Real!) Science Behind Fox's ''Lie to Me''". ''Popular Mechanics'' [Online], 2009.</ref> Dr. Lightman is based on Paul Ekman, and Ekman served as a scientific adviser for the series; he read and edited the scripts and sent video clip-notes of facial expressions for the actors to imitate. While Ekman has written 15 books, the series ''Lie to Me'' has more effectively brought Ekman's research into people's homes.<ref name="The 2009"/>
Universally, a reliable education system is consistently one of the most important pillars of society. Among that pillar, the existence of Black History Month has frequently been a topic of debate in the educational field. There is often an annual debate about the continued usefulness and fairness of a designated month dedicated to the history of one [[Race (classification of human beings)|race]]. One concern is that the inclusion of black history will discredit the accuracy of history as well as exclude the crucial parts, and distract children from what really matters when they enter their desired careers.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Pitre|first=Abul|date=November 3, 2002|title=The Controversy Around Black History|journal=The Western Journal of Black Studies|volume=26|pages=}}</ref> Criticisms include questions over whether it is appropriate to confine the celebration of black history to one month, as opposed to integration of black history into the mainstream education the rest of the year. Another criticism is that contrary to the original inspiration for Black History Month, which was a desire to redress the manner in which American schools failed to represent black historical figures as anything other than slaves or colonial subjects, Black History Month reduces complex historical figures to overly simplified objects of hero worship. Other critics refer to the celebration as racist,<ref>{{cite news|last=Hirsch|first=Afua|title=Black History Month has to be more than hero worship|url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2010/oct/01/black-history-month-hero-worship|accessdate=February 14, 2012|newspaper=[[The Guardian]]|date=September 30, 2010}}</ref> and that its existence will do damage to the position of Europe and the United States in their places of world history.
 
Actor and director [[Morgan Freeman]] and actress [[Stacey Dash]] have criticized the concept of declaring only one month as Black History Month.<ref>{{cite journal|last=McCarter|first=William Matt|title=There is a White Sale at Macy's: Reflections on Black History Month|journal=International Journal of Radical Critique|volume=1|issue=2|year=2012|url=http://www.radicalcritique.org/2012/12/Mccarter.html|accessdate=January 29, 2013}}</ref><ref>[http://thegrio.com/2016/01/27/stacey-dash-morgan-freeman-apology-bet-black-history/ "Stacey Dash says Morgan Freeman agrees with her views on Black History Month, ask for apology from ‘Twitter haters’"], [[TheGrio]], January 27, 2016.</ref> Freeman noted, "I don't want a Black history month. Black history is American history."<ref name="MSNBC">{{cite news|title=Freeman calls Black History Month 'ridiculous'|url=http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/10482634/ns/today-entertainment/t/freeman-calls-black-history-month-ridiculous/#.TzrCrUxWrTw|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110707102926/http://today.msnbc.msn.com/id/10482634/ns/today-entertainment/t/freeman-calls-black-history-month-ridiculous#.TzrCrUxWrTw|url-status=dead|archive-date=July 7, 2011|accessdate=February 14, 2012|publisher=[[MSNBC]]|date=December 15, 2005}}</ref> Supporters argue Black History Month will integrate much needed cultural inclusion and promote a positive, accepting environment where students can learn the history of a people in a primarily Caucasian narrative of history.{{Citation needed|date=July 2019}}
He has also collaborated with [[Pixar]]'s film director and animator [[Pete Docter]] in preparation of his 2015 film ''[[Inside Out (2015 film)|Inside Out]]''.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/05/opinion/sunday/the-science-of-inside-out.html|title=The Science of 'Inside Out'|author=Dacher Keltner & Paul Ekman|work=[[The New York Times]]|date=2015-07-03 |accessdate=2015-09-05}}</ref> Ekman also wrote a parent's guide to using ''Inside Out'' to help parents talk with their children about emotion, which can be found on his personal website.
 
=== InfluenceSee also ===
* [[African-American Heritage Sites]]
He was named one of the top [[Time 100]] most influential people in the May 11, 2009 edition of Time magazine.<ref>[http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,1894410_1893209_1893475,00.html The 2009 TIME 100: Paul Ekman], Scientists & Thinkers. [[Time (magazine)|Time]]. April 30, 2009.</ref> He was also ranked fifteenth among the most influential psychologists of the 21st century in 2014 by the journal Archives of Scientific Psychology.<ref>[http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/arc/2/1/20.html An Incomplete List of Eminent Psychologists of the Modern Era] American Psychological Association, 2014.</ref> He is currently on the Editorial Board of Greater Good magazine, published by the [[Greater Good Science Center]] of the [[University of California, Berkeley]]. His contributions include the interpretation of scientific research into the roots of compassion, altruism, and peaceful human relationships.
* [[African-American history]]
* [[African-American Music Appreciation Month]]
 
===Other history months===
==Research work==
* [[Asian Pacific American Heritage Month]]
* [[Filipino American History Month]]
* [[Women's History Month]]
* [[LGBT History Month]]
 
===Heritage months===
===Measuring nonverbal communication===
* [[Irish-American Heritage Month]]
Ekman's interest in nonverbal communication led to his first publication in 1957, describing how difficult it was to develop ways of empirically measuring nonverbal behaviour.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ekman|first=Paul|title=A methodological discussion of nonverbal behavior|journal=Journal of Psychology|year=1957|volume=43|pages=141–49|doi=10.1080/00223980.1957.9713059}}</ref> He chose the [[Langley Porter Neuropsychiatric Institute]], the psychiatry department of the University of California Medical School, for his clinical internship partly because [[Jurgen Ruesch]] and Weldon Kees had recently published a book called ''Nonverbal Communication'' (1956).<ref name="Ekman, P. pp 3-45"/><ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books/about/Nonverbal_Communication.html?id=KF9hvC3Vm3IC |title=Nonverbal Communication: Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations |author=Jurgen Ruesch, Weldon Kees |via=Books.google.com |accessdate=2014-03-03|year=1969 }}</ref><ref>Ruesch, J.; Kees, W. (1956). ''Nonverbal Communication: Notes on the Visual Perception of Human Relations''. University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 205.</ref>
* [[Jewish American Heritage Month]]
*[[Arab Americans#Arab American Heritage Month|Arab American Heritage Month]]
* [[National Hispanic Heritage Month]]
* [[Puerto Ricans in the United States#Civic participation|Puerto Rican Heritage Month]]
* [[Tibetan American#Immigration timeline|National Tibetan American Heritage Month]]
* [[Native American Indian Heritage Month]]
* [[Gay and Lesbian Pride Month]]
 
===International===
Ekman then focused on developing techniques for measuring nonverbal communication. He found that facial muscular movements that created facial expressions could be reliably identified through empirical research. He also found that human beings are capable of making over 10,000 facial expressions; only 3,000 relevant to emotion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.hulu.com/watch/53632 |title=Watch Lie To Me: Expressions: Introduction online |publisher=Hulu |accessdate=2014-03-03}}</ref> Psychologist [[Silvan Tomkins]] convinced Ekman to extend his studies of nonverbal communication from body movement to the face, helping him design his classic cross-cultural emotion recognition studies.<ref>{{cite web
* [[Black Awareness Day]], Brazil
|url = http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/facs/guide/FACSIVAk.html
|title = FACS Investigators Guide – Acknowledgements
|accessdate = 2 September 2009
|url-status = dead
|archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20091006110714/http://www.face-and-emotion.com/dataface/facs/guide/FACSIVAk.html
|archivedate = 6 October 2009
}}</ref>
 
== Footnotes ==
===Emotions as universal categories===
{{reflist|2}}
In ''[[The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals]]'' published in 1872, [[Charles Darwin]] theorized that emotions were evolved traits universal to the human species. However, the prevalent belief during the 1950s, particularly among [[cultural anthropology|anthropologists]], was that [[facial expressions]] and their meanings were determined through behavioural learning processes. A prominent advocate of the latter perspective was the anthropologist [[Margaret Mead]] who had travelled to different countries examining how cultures communicated using nonverbal behaviour.
 
==Further reading==
Through a series of studies, Ekman found a high agreement across members of diverse Western and Eastern literate cultures on selecting emotional labels that fit facial expressions. Expressions he found to be universal included those indicating wrath, grossness, scaredness, joy, loneliness, and shock. Findings on contempt were less clear, though there is at least some preliminary evidence that this emotion and its expression are universally recognized.<ref>Matsumoto, David (1992) "More evidence for the universality of a contempt expression". ''Motivation and Emotion''. Springer Netherlands. Volume 16, Number 4 / December, 1992</ref> Working with [[Wallace V. Friesen]], Ekman demonstrated that the findings extended to preliterate [[Fore (people)|Fore tribesmen]] in [[Papua New Guinea]], whose members could not have learned the meaning of expressions from exposure to media depictions of emotion.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ekman|first=P.|author2=Friesen, W.V.|url=http://www.ekmaninternational.com/ResearchFiles/Constants-Across-Cultures-In-The-Face-And-Emotion.pdf|title=Constants across cultures in the face and emotion.|journal=Journal of Personality and Social Psychology|year=1971|volume=17|issue=2|pages=124–29|doi=10.1037/h0030377|pmid=5542557|access-date=2015-02-28|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150228022800/http://www.ekmaninternational.com/ResearchFiles/Constants-Across-Cultures-In-The-Face-And-Emotion.pdf|archive-date=2015-02-28|url-status=dead}}</ref> Ekman and Friesen then demonstrated that certain emotions were exhibited with very specific display rules, culture-specific prescriptions about who can show which emotions to whom and when. These display rules could explain how cultural differences may conceal the universal effect of expression.<ref>{{cite book|last=Ekman|first=Paul|title=Handbook of social psychophysiology|year=1989|publisher=Wiley|location=Chichester, England|chapter=The argument and evidence about universals in facial expressions of emotion|editor=H. Wagner & A Manstead|pages=143–64}}</ref>
 
* Derrick Bell, "Brown v. Board of Education and the Black History Month Syndrome," ''Harvard Blackletter Law Journal,'' vol. 1, no. 1 (1984), p.&nbsp;13.
In the 1990s, Ekman proposed an expanded list of basic emotions, including a range of positive and negative emotions that are not all encoded in facial muscles.<ref name="Ekman 1999">{{citation | first = Paul | last = Ekman | year = 1999 | url = http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Basic-Emotions.pdf | contribution = Basic Emotions | editor1-first = T | editor1-last = Dalgleish | editor2-first = M | editor2-last = Power | title = Handbook of Cognition and Emotion | place = Sussex, UK | publisher = John Wiley & Sons}}</ref> The newly included emotions are: [[Amusement]], [[Contempt]], [[Contentment]], [[Embarrassment]], [[Anxiety|Excitement]], [[Guilt (emotion)|Guilt]], [[Pride|Pride in achievement]], [[Relief]], [[Contentment|Satisfaction]], [[Pleasure|Sensory pleasure]], and [[Shame]].<ref name="Ekman 1999"/>
* C. G. Woodson, "Negro History Week," ''Journal of Negro History,'' vol. 11, no. 2 (April 1926), pp.&nbsp;238–242. [https://www.jstor.org/stable/2714171 In JSTOR].
 
===Visual depictions of facial actions for studying emotion===
Ekman's famous test of emotion recognition was the Pictures of Facial Affect (POFA) stimulus set published in 1976. Consisting of 110 black and white images of Caucasian actors portraying the six universal emotions plus neutral expressions, the POFA has been used to study emotion recognition rates in normal and psychiatric populations around the world. Ekman used these stimuli in his original cross-cultural research. Many researchers favor the POFA because these photographs have been rated by large normative groups in different cultures. In response to critics, however, Ekman eventually released a more culturally diverse set of stimuli called the Japanese and Caucasian Facial Expressions of Emotion (JACFEE).<ref>{{cite journal|last=Ekman|first=P.|author2=Matsumoto, D.|title=Japanese and Caucasian facial expressions of emotion and neutral faces.}}</ref>
 
By 1978, Ekman and Friesen had finalized and developed the Facial Action Coding System. FACS is an anatomically based system for describing all observable facial movement for every emotion. Each observable component of facial movement is called an action unit or AU and all facial expressions can be decomposed into their constituent core AUs.<ref>{{cite web|last=Ekman|first=Paul|title=FACS vs. F.A.C.E.|url=http://www.paulekman.com/products/facs-vs-f-a-c-e/}}</ref> An update of this tool came in the early 2000s.
 
Other tools have been developed, including the MicroExpressions Training Tool (METT), which can help individuals identify more subtle emotional expressions that occur when people try to suppress their emotions. Application of this tool includes helping people with [[Asperger's]] or [[autism]] to recognize emotional expressions in their everyday interactions. The Subtle Expression Training Tool (SETT) teaches recognition of very small, micro signs of emotion. These are very tiny expressions, sometimes registering in only part of the face, or when the expression is shown across the entire face, but is very small. Subtle expressions occur for many reasons, for example, the emotion experienced may be very slight or the emotion may be just beginning. METT and SETT have been shown to increase accuracy in evaluating truthfulness{{Citation needed|date=August 2018}}.
 
[http://www.ekmaninternational.com Paul Ekman International] was established in 2010 by [http://www.eiagroup.com www.eiagroup.com] based on a partnership between Cliff Lansley and Paul Ekman to deliver emotional skills and deception detection workshops around the world, based on Dr Ekman's 50 years of research.
 
===Detecting deception===
Ekman has contributed to the study of social aspects of lying, and why we lie <ref>Ekman, P., 1991: [https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=uDhAPwAACAAJ Why Kids Lie: How Parents Can Encourage Truthfulness]</ref> and why we are often unconcerned with detecting lies.<ref>Ekman, P., 1996: [http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/Why-Dont-We-Catch-Liars.pdf Why don't we catch liars] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100108055421/http://www.paulekman.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/Why-Dont-We-Catch-Liars.pdf |date=2010-01-08 }}</ref> He first became interested in detecting lies while completing his clinical work. As detailed in Ekman's ''Telling Lies'', a patient he was involved in treating denied that she was suicidal in order to leave the hospital. Ekman began to review videotaped interviews to study people's facial expressions while lying. In a research project along with [[Maureen O'Sullivan (psychologist)|Maureen O'Sullivan]], called the [[Wizards Project]] (previously named the [[Diogenes Project]]), Ekman reported on facial "[[microexpression]]s" which could be used to assist in [[lie detection]]. After testing a total of 20,000 people<ref>Camilleri, J., "Truth Wizard knows when you've been lying", Chicago Sun-Times, January 21, 2009</ref> from all walks of life, he found only 50 people who had the ability to spot deception without any formal training. These ''naturals'' are also known as "Truth Wizards", or wizards of deception detection from demeanor.<ref>{{cite web
|url = http://www.onthemedia.org/transcripts/2009/01/23/08
|title = NPR: The Face Never Lies
|url-status = dead
|archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20090607090459/http://www.onthemedia.org/transcripts/2009/01/23/08
|archivedate = 2009-06-07
}}</ref>
 
In his profession, he also uses oral signs of lying. When interviewed about the Monica Lewinsky scandal, he mentioned that he could detect that former President [[Bill Clinton]] was lying because he used [[distancing language]].<ref>[http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2002/09/16/MN241376.DTL&type=science "The lie detective: San Francisco psychologist has made a science of reading facial expressions"] by Julian Guthrie, ''San Francisco Chronicle'', September 16, 2002.</ref>
 
==Contributions==
In his 1993 paper in the psychology journal ''[[American Psychologist]]'', Ekman describes nine direct contributions that his research on facial expression has made to the understanding of emotion.<ref name="Facial Expression and Emotion">{{cite journal|last=Ekman|first=Paul|title=Facial Expression and Emotion|journal=American Psychologist|year=1993|volume=48|issue=4|pages=384–92|doi=10.1037/0003-066X.48.4.384|pmid=8512154}}</ref> Highlights include:
* '''Consideration of both nature and nurture:''' Emotion is now viewed as a [[physiological]] phenomenon influenced by our cultural and learning experiences.
* '''Emotion-specific physiology:''' Ekman led the way by trying to find discrete [[psychophysiological]] differences across emotions. A number of researchers continue to search for emotion-specific autonomic and [[central nervous system]] activations. With the advent of [[neuroimaging]] techniques, a topic of intense interest revolves around how specific emotions relate to physiological activations in certain brain areas. Ekman laid the groundwork for the future field of [[affective neuroscience]].
* '''An examination of events that precede emotions''': Ekman's finding that voluntarily making one of the universal facial expressions can generate the physiology and some of the subjective experience of emotion provided some difficulty for some of the earlier theoretical conceptualizations of experiencing emotions.
* '''Considering emotions as families:''' Ekman & Friesen (1978) found not one expression for each emotion, but a variety of related but visually different expressions. For example, the authors reported 60 variations of the anger expression which share core configurational properties and distinguish themselves clearly from the families of fearful expressions, disgust expressions, and so on. Variations within a family likely reflect the intensity of the emotion, how the emotion is controlled, whether it is simulated or spontaneous, and the specifics of the event that provoked the emotion.
 
==Criticisms==
Most{{who|date=November 2019}} credibility-assessment researchers agree that untrained people are unable to visually detect lies.<ref name="nature"/>
The application of part of Ekman's work to [[airport security]] via the [[Transportation Security Administration]]'s "[[SPOT (TSA program)|Screening Passengers by Observation Techniques]]" (SPOT) program has been criticized for not having been put through controlled scientific tests.<ref name="nature">{{cite journal|author=Sharon Weinberger |title=Airport security: Intent to deceive? : Nature News |journal=Nature |volume=465 |issue=7297 |pages=412–415 |publisher=Nature.com |doi=10.1038/465412a |pmid=20505706 |year=2010 }}</ref> A 2007 report on SPOT referring to untrained people stated that "simply put, people (including professional lie-catchers with extensive experience of assessing veracity) would achieve similar hit rates if they flipped a coin".<ref>Hontz, C.R., Hartwig, M., Kleinman, S.M. & Meissner, C.A. "Credibility Assessment at Portals", ''Portals Committee Report'' (2009).</ref> Since controlled scientific tests typically involve people playing the part of terrorists, Ekman says those people are unlikely to have the same emotions as actual terrorists.<ref name="nature"/>
 
A more recent report from the Department of Homeland Security [https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Transportation%20Security%20Administration%20%28TSA%29%20-%20Scientific%20Substantiation%20of%20Behavioral%20Indicators.pdf DHS Report 2015] confirms that "there is a significant body of scientific evidence and operational
literature that supports the use of behavior detection indicators to identify high-risk passengers. TSA has compiled over 189 documents that include scientific research
studies and exemplars from operational events that illustrate the reasoning for the use of the indicators in identifying terrorists who are an imminent threat."
 
Field research by the [http://www.EIAGroup.com EIA Group] has documented [https://www.eiagroup.com/2017/04/11/observe-target-engage-respond-oter/ empirical evidence] of the impact of behavioral analysis in high-stake airport environments.
 
The methodology used by Ekman and O'Sullivan in their recent work on [[Wizards Project|Truth wizards]] has also received criticism on the basis of validation.<ref>Bond, Charles F & Uysal, Ahmet. (2007). "[http://www.springerlink.com/content/u3051220n573124w/fulltext.html On lie detection 'wizards']". ''Law and human behavior'', 31.</ref>
 
Other criticisms of Ekman's work are based on experimental and naturalistic studies by several other emotion psychologists that did not find evidence in support of Ekman's proposed taxonomy of discrete emotions and discrete facial expression.<ref>Russel and Fernandez-Dols (1997). ''The Psychology of Facial Expression''. Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0521587964}}. Pages 400</ref>
 
Methodological criticisms of Ekman's work focus on the essentially circular and tautological nature of his experiments, in which test subjects were shown selected photographs of "basic emotions," and then asked to match them with the same set of concepts used in their production. Ekman showed photographs selected from over 3000 pictures of individuals asked to simulate emotions, from which he edited to contain "those which showed only the pure display of a single affect," using no control and subject only to Ekman's intuition.<ref>Paul Ekman, E. Richard Sorenson, and Wallace V. Friesen, "Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion," Science, 164/3875 (1969), 86–8, here 87</ref> If Ekman felt a photograph did not show the correct 'pure' emotion, he excluded it.<ref>Jan Plamper. The history of Emotions: An Introduction (Oxford, 2012), 153.</ref>
 
Ekman received hostility from some anthropologists at meetings of the American Psychological Association and the American Anthropological Association from 1967 to 1969. He recounted that, as he was reporting his findings on universality of expression, one anthropologist tried to stop him from finishing by shouting that his ideas were fascist. He compares this to another incident when he was accused of being racist by an activist for claiming that Black expressions are not different from White expressions. In 1975, [[Margaret Mead]], an anthropologist, wrote against Ekman for doing "improper anthropology", and for disagreeing with [[Ray Birdwhistell]]'s claim opposing universality. Ekman wrote that, while many people agreed with Birdwhistell then, most came to accept his own findings over the next decade.<ref name="ReferenceA"/>
However, some anthropologists continued to suggest that emotions are not universal.<ref>{{cite journal|last=Lutz|first=C.|author2=White, G.M.|title=The anthropology of emotions.|journal=Annual Review of Anthropology|year=1986|volume=15|pages=405–36|doi=10.1146/annurev.anthro.15.1.405}}</ref> Ekman argued that there has been no quantitative data to support the claim that emotions are culture specific. In his 1993 discussion of the topic, Ekman states that there is no instance in which 70% or more of one cultural group select one of the six universal emotions while another culture group labels the same expression as another universal emotion.<ref name="Facial Expression and Emotion" />
 
Ekman criticized the tendency of psychologists to base their conclusions on surveys of college students. [[Hank Campbell]] quotes Ekman saying at the ''Being Human'' conference, "We basically have a science of undergraduates."<ref name="science20">{{cite web|url=http://www.science20.com/cool-links/doubleblind_test_astrology_21st_century-88961
|title=A Double-Blind Test Of Astrology For The 21st Century|author=Hank Campbell|website=Science20.com|date=16 April 2012|quote=...as the legendary Paul Ekman said at the Being Human conference, 'We basically have a science of undergraduates'}}</ref> Ekman's own studies have used freshman college students as the subject group, comparing their results with those of illiterate subjects from New Guinea.<ref>Paul Ekman, E. Richard Sorenson, and Wallace V. Friesen, ‘Pan-Cultural Elements in Facial Displays of Emotion’, Science, 164/3875(1969), 87</ref>
 
Ekman has refused to submit his more recent work to peer-review, claiming that revealing the details of his work might reveal state secrets and endanger security.<ref>Weinberger, S. Airport security: Intent to deceive?. Nature 465, 412–415 (2010) https://www.nature.com/articles/465412a</ref> Critics assert that this is instead an attempt to shield his work from methodological criticisms within experimental psychology, even as his public and popular visibility has grown.<ref>Jan Plamper. The history of Emotions: An Introduction (Oxford, 2012), 162.</ref>
 
==Publications==
* ''Nonverbal messages: Cracking the Code'' {{ISBN|978-0-9915636-3-0}}
* ''Emotional Awareness: Overcoming the Obstacles to Psychological Balance and Compassion'' (Times Books, 2008) {{ISBN|0-8050-8712-5}}
* ''Unmasking the Face'' {{ISBN|1-883536-36-7}}
* ''Emotions Revealed: Recognizing Faces and Feelings to Improve Communication and Emotional Life'' (Times Books, 2003) {{ISBN|0-8050-7516-X}}
* ''Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage'' (W. W. Norton & Company, 1985) {{ISBN|0-393-32188-6}}
* ''What the Face Reveals'' (with Rosenberg, E. L., Oxford University Press, 1998) {{ISBN|0-19-510446-3}}
* ''The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions'' (with R. Davidson, Oxford University Press, 1994) {{ISBN|0-19-508944-8}}
* ''Darwin and Facial Expression: A Century of Research in Review'' {{ISBN|0-12-236750-2}}
* ''Facial Action Coding System/Investigator's'' {{ISBN|99936-26-61-9}}
* ''Why Kids Lie: How Parents Can Encourage Truthfulness'' (Penguin, 1991) {{ISBN|0-14-014322-X}}
* ''Handbook of Methods in Nonverbal Behavior Research'' {{ISBN|0-521-28072-9}}
* ''Face of Man'' {{ISBN|0-8240-7130-1}}
* ''Emotion in the Human Face'' {{ISBN|0-08-016643-1}}
* ''Handbook of Cognition and Emotion'' (Sussex, UK John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 1999)
 
==See also==
* [[Animal communication]]
* [[Body language]]
* [[Emotions and culture]]
* [[Emotion classification]]
* [[Facial Action Coding System]]
* [[Microexpression]]
* [[Nonverbal communication]]
* [[Origin of language]]
* [[Origin of speech]]
* ''[[Lie to Me]]'' (TV series)
* [[Wizards Project]]
* [[Daniel Cordaro]]
* [[Marc Brackett]]
 
==References==
{{Reflist}}
 
==External links==
* [http://www.paulekman.com/ Official site]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20140105022238/http://lifeboat.com/ex/bios.paul A biography from Lifeboat Foundation site]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20141221033708/http://gladwell.com/the-naked-face/ The Naked Face], [[Gladwell.com]]
* [http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/people4/Ekman/ekman-con0.html Interview (History Channel transcript)]
* [http://greatergood.berkeley.edu/greatergood/2008fall/Ekman652.php Greater Good Magazine: Interview between Ekman and daughter Eve on parent-child trust]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20080412050216/http://www.morethansound.net/store/index.php?act=viewProd&productId=20 Recording of a conversation] with [[Daniel Goleman]]
* [http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/detecting.html Detecting Deception, American Psychological Association]
* [https://www.facebook.com/PaulEkmanGroup PaulEkmanGroup Facebook]
* [https://twitter.com/PaulEkman PaulEkmanGroup Twitter]
 
{{Evolutionary psychology}}
{{Psychology}}
{{Authority control}}
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Ekman, Paul}}
[[Category:1934 births]]
[[Category:Living people]]
[[Category:American psychologists]]
[[Category:Social psychologists]]
[[Category:Emotion psychologists]]
[[Category:Evolutionary psychologists]]
[[Category:20th-century psychologists]]
[[Category:21st-century psychologists]]
[[Category:New York University alumni]]
[[Category:Adelphi University alumni]]
[[Category:University of California, San Francisco faculty]]
[[Category:Lie detection]]
[[Category:American Jews]]
[[Category:People from San Francisco]]
 
 
==References==
<references />
 
== External links ==
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* {{en icon}} [http://www.kitkatclub.de/ KitKatClub's official website]
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* {{en icon}} [http://www.kitkatclub.de/Club/kitkatbooklet2.pdf KitKatClub DVD booklet (English/Deutsch&nbsp;– PDF)] 1994–2005&nbsp;– History of the KitKatClub by Kirsten.
*[https://web.archive.org/web/20141220224713/http://officialblackhistorymonthuk.co.uk/black-history-month-in-the-uk/ Official UK Black History Month Website]
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*[https://web.archive.org/web/20150215013601/http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/multiculturalism/black/index.asp Department of Citizenship and Immigration Canada Black History Month website]
* {{de icon}} [http://www.kitkatclub.org/SeitenVorlagen/Club/Bildergalerien/OpeningSage/070707_grand_open/index.htm KitKat-photo gallery]&nbsp;– Opening @ sageclub July 2007
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* {{de icon}} [http://www.taz.de/pt/2004/02/28/a0322.nf/text.ges,1 „Die Bühne ist der Star“]&nbsp;– about the KitKatClub, by Henning Kober, [[die tageszeitung]] (taz), 28.&nbsp;Feb. 2004
* {{de icon}} [http://www.berlinonline.de/berliner-zeitung/archiv/.bin/dump.fcgi/2001/0503/lokales/0036/ „Erlaubt ist, was gefällt“]&nbsp;– by Elmar Schütze, [[Berliner Zeitung]] vom 3.&nbsp;Mai 2001
* {{de icon}} [https://web.archive.org/web/20070314115050/http://www.parapolitik.de/kitkat/ "Locker trotz SM"]&nbsp;– S&M view about the KitKatClub
* {{de icon}} [http://www.insomnia-events.de/kitkatclub.htm KitKatClub @ Alter Wartesaal (Köln)]
 
{{coord|52|30|40|N|13|25|00|E|region:DE-BE_type:landmark|display=title}}
 
 
[[File:Unipolar depressive disorders world map - DALY - WHO2004.svg|thumb|450px|[[Age adjustment|Age-standardised]] [[disability-adjusted life year]] (DALY) rates of unipolar depressive disorders by country (per 100,000 inhabitants) in 2004.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/13/9780199218707_chapter1.pdf |title=The scope and concerns of public health |work=Oxford University Press: OUP.COM |date=March 5, 2009 |accessdate=December 3, 2010 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20130604205527/http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/13/9780199218707_chapter1.pdf |archivedate=June 4, 2013 }}</ref>]]
 
'''Դեպրեսիայի համաճարակաբանությունն''' ամբողջ աշխարհում ուսումնասիրվել է:
Ինչպես ցույց է տվել համաճարակաբանությունը՝ ամբողջ աշխարհում դեպրեսիան ճնշված լինելու հիմնական պատճառն է<ref>{{vcite web |url= http://www.who.int/whr/2001/en/index.html |title= The world health report 2001&nbsp;– Mental Health: New Understanding, New Hope |accessdate=2008-10-19 |work= WHO website |publisher= World Health Organization |year= 2001}}</ref>: Կյանքի ընթացքում դրա տարածվածությունը լայնորեն տարբերվում է՝ սկսած Ճապոնիայի 3%-ից մինչև Միացյալ Նահանգների 17%-ը: Համաճարակաբանական տվյալները ցույց են տալիս, որ Մերձավոր Արևելքում, Հյուսիսային Աֆրիկայում, Հարավային Ասիայում և Ամերիկայում դեպրեսիան ունի ավելի լայն տարածում, քան այլ երկրներում<ref>Burden of Depressive Disorders by Country, Sex, Age, and Year: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010, Alize J. Ferrari, Fiona J. Charlson, Rosana E. Norman, Scott B. Patten, Greg Freedman, Christopher J.L. Murray, Theo Vos, Harvey A. Whiteford, Published: November 5, 2013 https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1001547</ref>: Ըստ տասը երկրում կատարված ուսումնասիրությունների՝ մարդկանց թիվը, որոնք իրենց ողջ կյանքի ընթացքում կարող են տառապել դեպրեսիայից, կամզում է 8–12 տոկոս<ref name="pmid12830306">{{vcite journal |author=Andrade L, Caraveo-A. |date=24 March 2006 |origyear=2003 |url=http://media.wiley.com |journal=Int J Methods Psychiatr Res |volume=12 |issue=1 |pages=3–21 |pmid=12830306 |doi=10.1002/mpr.138 |last12=Kiliç |first12=C |last13=Offord |first13=D |last14=Ustun |first14=TB |last15=Wittchen |first15=HU |df= }}{{dead link|date=October 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}</ref><ref>{{vcite journal |author= Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O |year=2003 |title= The epidemiology of major depressive disorder: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) |journal=[[Journal of the American Medical Association|JAMA]] |volume=289 |issue=203 |pages=3095–105 |pmid=12813115 |doi= 10.1001/jama.289.23.3095 |author10=National Comorbidity Survey Replication}}</ref>:
 
Հյուսիսային Ամերիկայում [[մեծ դեպրեսիվ շեղում]] ունենալու հավականությունը ցանկացած տարվա ընթացքում տղամարդկանց մոտ 3–5% է, իսկ կականց մոտ՝8–10%<ref>{{vcite journal |author=Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE |year=2005|title=Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication |journal=Archives of General Psychiatry|volume=62 |issue=6 |pages=593–602 |pmid=15939837|doi=10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593}}</ref><ref>{{vcite journal |author=Murphy JM, Laird NM, Monson RR, Sobol AM, Leighton AH |year=2000|title=A 40-year perspective on the prevalence of depression: The Stirling County Study|journal=Archives of General Psychiatry |volume=57 |issue=3 |pages=209–15|pmid=10711905|doi=10.1001/archpsyc.57.3.209}}</ref>:
 
== Ժողովրդագրական դինամիկա ==
Բնակչության վերաբերյալ ուսումնասիրությունները համապատասխանաբար ցույց են տվել, որ մեծ դեպրեսիան երկու անգամ ավելի շատ է տարածված կանանց մոտ, քան տղամարդկանց մոտ, չնայած դրա պատճառը դեռ պարզ չէ<ref name=Kuehner03>{{vcite journal |last=Kuehner |first=C |year=2003 |title= Gender differences in unipolar depression: An update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations |journal=Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica|volume=108 |issue=3 |pages=163–74 |pmid=12890270 |doi=10.1034/j.1600-0447.2003.00204.x}}</ref>: Հաճախականության նման աճը ոչ թե կապված է խրոնիկ աճի հետ, այլ՝ սեռական հասունացման հետ, որը երևան է գալիս 15-ից 18 տարեկաններում և ավելի շատ հայտնվում է հոգեսոցիալական գործոններով, քան, օրինակ, հորմոնալ գործոններով<ref name=Kuehner03/>:
 
Մարդիկ սովորաբար իրենց առաջին դեպրեսիվ շեղումն ունենում են 30-ից 40 տարեկանում: Գոյություն ունի նաև երկրորդ՝ ավելի փոքր շեղումը 50-ից 60 տարեկանում<ref name=Eaton97>{{vcite journal |author=Eaton WW, Anthony JC, Gallo J |year=1997|title=Natural history of diagnostic interview schedule/DSM-IV major depression. The Baltimore Epidemiologic Catchment Area follow-up |journal=Archives of General Psychiatry |volume=54 |pages=993–99 |pmid=9366655 |issue=11 |doi=10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830230023003}}</ref>: Մեծ դեպրեսիա ունենալու ռիսկը մեծանում է նյարդաբանական պայմաններով՝ ինսուլտի, Պարկինսոնի հիվանդության կամ ցրված սկլերոզի ունենալու դեպքում: Մեծ է ռիսկը նաև հետծննդաբերական շրջանի առաջին տարվա ընթացքում<ref name=Rickards05>{{vcite journal |author=Rickards H |year=2005|title=Depression in neurological disorders: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke |journal=Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry |volume=76 |pages=i48–i52 |pmid=15718222 |url=http://jnnp.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/76/suppl_1/i48 |doi= 10.1136/jnnp.2004.060426 |pmc= 1765679 }}</ref>: Խորը դեպրեսիայի ռիսկը կապված է նաև շրջակա միջավայրի սթրեսների հետ, որոնց բախվում են բնակչության որոշ խմբերը, օրինակ՝ պատերազմի զինվորները կամ պրակտիկայում գտնվող բժիշկները<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rotenstein|first=Lisa S.|last2=Ramos|first2=Marco A.|last3=Torre|first3=Matthew|last4=Segal|first4=J. Bradley|last5=Peluso|first5=Michael J.|last6=Guille|first6=Constance|last7=Sen|first7=Srijan|last8=Mata|first8=Douglas A.|date=2016-12-06|title=Prevalence of Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Suicidal Ideation Among Medical Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis|journal=JAMA|volume=316|issue=21|pages=2214–2236|doi=10.1001/jama.2016.17324|issn=1538-3598|pmid=27923088|pmc=5613659}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |author= Douglas A. Mata |author2= Marco A. Ramos, Narinder Bansal, Rida Khan, Constance Guille, Emanuele Di Angelantonio & Srijan Sen | title = Prevalence of Depression and Depressive Symptoms Among Resident Physicians: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis | journal= [[JAMA (journal)|JAMA]] |volume= 314 |issue= 22 |pages= 2373–2383 | year= 2015 |doi= 10.1001/jama.2015.15845 | pmid= 26647259 |pmc= 4866499 }}</ref>:
 
Այն նաև տարածված է սրտանոթային հիվանդություններ ունեցող մարկդանց շրջանում<ref name="pmid18334889">{{vcite journal |author=Alboni P, Favaron E, Paparella N, Sciammarella M, Pedaci M |title=Is there an association between depression and cardiovascular mortality or sudden death? |journal=Journal of cardiovascular medicine (Hagerstown, Md.) |volume=9 |issue=4 |pages=356–62 |year=2008 |pmid=18334889 |doi=10.2459/JCM.0b013e3282785240}}</ref><ref name="pmid11383983">{{vcite journal |author=Strik JJ, Honig A, Maes M |title=Depression and myocardial infarction: relationship between heart and mind |journal=Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry |volume=25 |issue=4 |pages=879–92 |year=2001 |pmid=11383983|doi=10.1016/S0278-5846(01)00150-6}}</ref>: Ուսումնասիրությունները հակասում են այն մտքին, որ տարեցների մոտ դեպրեսիան լայն տարածում ունի, և միևնույն ժամանակ տվյալների մեծ մասը ցույց է տալիս, որ այդ տարիքային խմբում դեպրեսիա ունենալու ռիսկը նվազում է<ref>{{vcite journal |author=Jorm AF |title=Does old age reduce the risk of anxiety and depression? A review of epidemiological studies across the adult life span |journal=Psychological Medicine |volume=30 |issue=1 |pages=11–22 |year=2000 |pmid=10722172 |doi=10.1017/S0033291799001452}}</ref>: Դեպրեսիվ խանգարումներն ավելի տարածված են քաղաքային բնակավայրերում, քան գյուղական բնակավայրերում, և, ընդհանուր առմամաբ, այն ավելի տարածված է ոչ բարենպաստ սոցիալ-տնտեսական գործոններով խմբերում (օրինակ՝ անօրթևան մարդիկ)<ref>Psychiatry, 4th edition - Oxford University Press, 2012 by By John Geddes, Jonathan Price, Rebecca McKnight page 222</ref>:
 
Տարբեր էթնիկ խմբերի միջև մեծ դեպրեսիայի հարաբերական տարածվածության վերաբերյալ տվյալները հստակ կոնսենսիուսի չեն եկել: Այնուամենայնիվ, միակ հայտնի ուսումնասիրությունը էնթիկ խմբերի վերաբերյալ փաստում է, որ մեծ դեպրեսիայով հակված են տառապել ավելի շատ աֆրո- և մեքսիկ ամերիկացիները, քան եվրոամերիկացիները<ref>{{Cite journal|pmc=1449298|title=Prevalence of Depression by Race/Ethnicity: Findings From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III|journal=American Journal of Public Health|volume=95|issue=6|pages=998–1000|publisher=U.S. National Library of Medicine|date=June 2005|author=Stephanie A. Riolo|display-authors=etal|doi=10.2105/AJPH.2004.047225|pmid=15914823}}</ref>:
 
Կանխատեսումները ցույց են տալիս, որ մինչև 2020 թվականը դեպրեսիան կարող է լինել սրտի հիվանդությունից հետո երկրորդ գլխավոր պատճառը, որի արդյունքում մարդը կարող է կյանքից հեռանալ<ref>{{Cite journal|title = The global burden of disease, 1990-2020|journal = Nature Medicine|date = 1998-11-01|issn = 1078-8956|pmid = 9809543|pages = 1241–1243|volume = 4|issue = 11|doi = 10.1038/3218|first = A. D.|last = Lopez|first2 = C. C.|last2 = Murray}}</ref>:
 
2016 թվականին կատարված ուսումնասիրությունները գտել են հակաբեղմնավորման միջոցների օգտագործման և դեպրեսիայի մեջ կապ<ref>{{cite journal |first=Charlotte |last=Wessel Skovlund |url=http://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/article-abstract/2552796 |title=Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression |journal=JAMA Psychiatry |doi=10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2016.2387 |date=September 28, 2016 |accessdate=October 7, 2016 |volume=73 |pages=1154}}</ref>
 
==By country==
[[Age adjustment|Age-standardised]] [[disability-adjusted life year]] (DALY) rates per 100,000 inhabitants<ref>{{vcite web|url=http://www.who.int/entity/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/gbddeathdalycountryestimates2004.xls |title=Age-standardized DALYs per 100,000 by cause, and Member State, 2004 |accessdate=2011-03-31 |work=Global burden of disease: 2004 update |publisher=World Health Organization (WHO) |year=2004}}</ref>
{{Major Depressive DALY Rates|Depression=india 1405.13}}
 
== See also ==
* [[Prevalence of mental disorders]]
 
==References==
{{reflist}}
 
==External links==
*{{Commonscatinline}}
 
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{{Global epidemiology}}
 
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