«Մասնակից:SON Harutyunyan/Ավազարկղ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
 
=== Size ===
{{Further|Fertility factor (demography)}}
[[Պատկեր:Mennonite_siblings_Montana_1937.jpg|մինի|[[Mennonite]] siblings, Montana 1937]]
The [[total fertility rate]] of women varies from country to country, from a high of 6.76 children born/woman in [[Niger]] to a low of 0.81 in [[Singapore]] (as of 2015).<ref name="cia.gov">{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2127rank.html|title=The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency|website=Cia.gov|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref> Fertility is low in most [[Eastern European]] and [[Southern European]] countries; and high in most [[Sub-Saharan Africa|Sub-Saharan African]] countries.<ref name="cia.gov" />
In some cultures, the mother's preference of family size influences that of the children through early adulthood.<ref name="AxinnClarkberg1994">{{cite journal|last1=Axinn|first1=William G.|last2=Clarkberg|first2=Marin E.|last3=Thornton|first3=Arland|year=1994|title=Family Influences on Family Size Preferences|journal=Demography|volume=31|issue=1|page=65|doi=10.2307/2061908|issn=0070-3370|jstor=2061908}}</ref> A parent's number of children strongly correlates with the number of children that they will eventually have.<ref name="Murphy2013">{{cite journal|last1=Murphy|first1=Michael|year=2013|title=Cross-National Patterns of Intergenerational Continuities in Childbearing in Developed Countries|journal=Biodemography and Social Biology|volume=59|issue=2|pages=101–126|doi=10.1080/19485565.2013.833779|issn=1948-5565|pmc=4160295}}</ref>
 
== {{anchor|Family types}}Types of family ==
[[Պատկեր:Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-A0808-0008-001,_Berlin,_Passanten.jpg|ձախից|մինի|A mother with her children, Berlin, Germany, 1962]]
[[Պատկեր:Wm._Riley_Blankinship,_miner,_with_his_children._Koppers_Coal_Division,_Kopperston_Mine,_Kopperston,_Wyoming_County..._-_NARA_-_540984.jpg|ձախից|մինի|A miner with his children]]
 
=== Matrifocal family ===
{{Main article|Matrifocal family}}
A "matrifocal" family consists of a [[mother]] and her children. Generally, these children are her biological offspring, although adoption of children is a practice in nearly every society. This kind of family occurs commonly where women have the resources to rear their children by themselves, or where men are more mobile than women. As a definition, "a family or domestic group is matrifocal when it is centred on a woman and her children. In this case, the father(s) of these children are intermittently present in the life of the group and occupy a secondary place. The children's mother is not necessarily the wife of one of the children's fathers."<ref>Godelier, Maurice, trans. Nora Scott, ''The Metamorphoses of Kinship'' (London: Verso, 2011 ({{ISBN|978-1-84467-746-7}})), p. 568 (''Glossary'', entry ''matrifocal'') (trans. from ''Métamorphoses de la parenté'' (Librarie Arthème Fayard (apparently), 2004)) (author prof. anthropology, École des hautes études en sciences sociales, Paris).</ref>
 
 
=== Degrees of kinship ===
{{main|Coefficient of relationship}}
[[Պատկեր:Albumen_photograph_of_an_Indian_family_with_children_in_the_1870s.jpg|մինի|Family in India, 1870s]]
[[Պատկեր:Arthur_Rothstein_Family_in_a_wagon_Lee_County_August_1935.jpg|աջից|մինի|Family in a wagon, Lee County, Mississippi, August 1935.]]
[[Պատկեր:Relative_Table.png|մինի|Family tree showing the relationship of each person to you (the black square).]]
[[Պատկեր:Middagsmåltid_i_folkstugan._Oxie_härad,_Västra_Klagstorps_socken,_Skåne_-_Nordiska_Museet_-_NMA.0033405.jpg|մինի|Swedish family eating, 1902]]
{{Main article|Kinship terminology}}
In his book ''[[Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity of the Human Family]]'', anthropologist [[Lewis H. Morgan|Lewis Henry Morgan]] (1818–1881) performed the first survey of kinship terminologies in use around the world. Although much of his work is now considered dated, he argued that [[kinship]] terminologies reflect different sets of distinctions. For example, most kinship terminologies distinguish between sexes (the difference between a brother and a sister) and between generations (the difference between a child and a parent). Moreover, he argued, kinship terminologies distinguish between relatives by blood and [[marriage]] (although recently some anthropologists have argued that many societies define kinship in terms other than "blood").
 
 
== History of theories ==
{{Main article|History of the family}}
 
Early scholars of family history applied [[Charles Darwin|Darwin]]'s biological [[theory of evolution]] in their theory of evolution of family systems.<ref name="Encyclopædia Britannica">{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/551887/sociology/222961/Founding-the-discipline#ref=ref748622|title=Sociology/Founding the discipline|work=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]]|accessdate=2009-07-26}}</ref> American anthropologist [[Lewis H. Morgan]] published ''[[Ancient Society]]'' in 1877 based on his theory of the three stages of human progress from [[Primitive culture|Savagery]] through [[Barbarian|Barbarism]] to [[Civilization]].<ref>Morgan 1877</ref> Morgan's book was the "inspiration for [[Friedrich Engels]]' book" ''[[The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State]]'' published in 1884.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/146165/cultural-anthropology/38786/Marxism-and-the-collectors#ref=ref423234|title=Cultural Anthropology|work=Encyclopædia Britannica|accessdate=2009-07-22}}</ref>
 
 
== Domestic violence ==
{{Main article|DomesticԸնտանեկան violenceբռնություն}}
Domestic violence (DV) is violence that happens within the family. The legal and social understanding of the concept of DV differs by culture. The definition of the term "domestic violence" varies, depending on the context in which it is used.<ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.childwelfare.gov/systemwide/laws_policies/statutes/defdomvio.cfm|title=Definitions of Domestic Violence – Child Welfare Information Gateway|website=Childwelfare.gov|accessdate=23 October 2017}}</ref> It may be defined differently in medical, legal, political or social contexts. The definitions have varied over time, and vary in different parts of the world.
 
 
==== Parental abuse of children (child abuse) ====
{{Main article|ParentalԲռնություն abuseերեխաների of childrenնկատմամբ}}
Child abuse is the physical, sexual or emotional maltreatment or neglect of a child or children.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Child+abuse|title=Child abuse – definition of child abuse by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia|website=Thefreedictionary.com|accessdate=15 September 2010}}</ref> In the United States, the [[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]] (CDC) and the Department for Children and Families (DCF) define child maltreatment as any act or series of acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that results in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child.<ref name="CDC">{{cite web|url=https://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/dvp/CMP/CMP-Surveillance.htm|title=Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Uniform Definitions for Public Health and Recommended Data Elements|last=Leeb|first=R.T.|last2=Paulozzi|first2=L.J.|date=1 January 2008|publisher=[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]|accessdate=20 October 2008|last3=Melanson|first3=C.|last4=Simon|first4=T.R.|last5=Arias|first5=I.}}</ref> Child abuse can occur in a child's home, or in the organizations, schools or communities the child interacts with. There are four major categories of child abuse: [[Child neglect|neglect]], [[physical abuse]], [[Psychological abuse|psychological or emotional abuse]], and [[Child sexual abuse|sexual abuse]].
 
==== Parental abuse by children ====
{{Main article|Parental abuse by children}}
[[Abuse]] of parents by their children is a common but under reported and under researched subject. Parents are quite often subject to levels of [[childhood aggression]] in excess of normal childhood aggressive outbursts, typically in the form of [[Verbal abuse|verbal]] or [[Physical abuse|physical]] abuse. Parents feel a sense of [[shame]] and [[humiliation]] to have that problem, so they rarely seek help and there is usually little or no help available anyway.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://parentlineplus.org.uk/default.aspx?page=viewarticle&module=articles-view&id=686&tags=25|title=Parenting and Family Support – Family Lives (Parentline Plus)|website=Parentlineplus.org.uk|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>[http://familylives.org.uk/sites/default/files/When%20family%20hurts%202010.pdf WHEN FAMILY LIFE HURTS: Family experience of aggression in children – Parentline plus 31 October 2010] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120619160335/http://familylives.org.uk/sites/default/files/When%20family%20hurts%202010.pdf|date=June 19, 2012}}</ref>
 
==== Elder abuse ====
{{Main article|Elder abuse}}
Elder abuse is "a single, or repeated act, or lack of appropriate action, occurring within any relationship where there is an expectation of trust, which causes harm or distress to an older person."<ref>[http://www.elderabuse.org.uk elderabus.org.uk], accessed October 12, 2007.</ref> This definition has been adopted by the [[World Health Organization]] from a definition put forward by Action on Elder Abuse in the UK. Laws protecting the elderly from abuse are similar to, and related to, laws protecting [[Dependent adult|dependent adults]] from abuse.
 
 
=== Forced and child marriage ===
{{Main article|Forced marriage|Child marriage}}
Forced and child marriages are practiced in certain regions of the world, particularly in [[Asia]] and [[Africa]], and these types of marriages are associated with a high rate of domestic violence.<ref name="hrw.org" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/child_marriage_20130307/en/|title=WHO – Child marriages: 39 000 every day|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/people/features/ihavearightto/four_b/casestudy_art16.shtml|title=I have a right to – BBC World Service|website=Bbc.co.uk|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>[http://www.plan-uk.org/early-and-forced-marriage/ End early and forced marriage – Because I am a Girl] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140312222100/http://www.plan-uk.org/early-and-forced-marriage/|date=March 12, 2014}}</ref>
 
 
== The concept of family honor ==
{{Main article|Family honor}}
{{Further|Culture of honor|Honor killing}}
Family honor is an abstract concept involving the perceived quality of worthiness and respectability that affects the social standing and the self-evaluation of a group of related people, both corporately and individually.<ref name="Malina2001">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Ek3fSY7jRDcC&pg=PA42|title=The New Testament world: insights from cultural anthropology|last=Malina|first=Bruce J.|date=15 February 2001|publisher=Westminster John Knox Press|isbn=978-0-664-22295-6|page=42|accessdate=7 November 2011}}</ref><ref name="spain">{{cite journal|last=Mosquera|first=Patricia M.R.|last2=Manstead|first2=Antony S.R.|last3=Fischer|first3=Agneta H.|date=January 2002|title=Honor in the Mediterranean and Northern Europe|url=http://jcc.sagepub.com/content/33/1/16.short|journal=Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology|volume=33|issue=1|pages=16–36|doi=10.1177/0022022102033001002|accessdate=17 October 2011|citeseerx=10.1.1.1006.591}}</ref> The family is viewed as the main source of [[honor]] and the community highly values the relationship between honor and the family.<ref name="Family">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/?id=AD3e7Xdn2NMC&pg=PA528&dq=family+honor+in+different+cultures#v=snippet&q=honor&f=false|title=Child, family, school, community: socialization and support|last=Berns|first=Roberta|publisher=Thompson Learning|year=2007|isbn=978-0-495-00758-6|page=139}}</ref> The conduct of family members reflects upon family honor and the way the family perceives itself, and is perceived by others.<ref name="spain" /> In [[Culture of honor|cultures of honor]] maintaining the family honor is often perceived as more important than either [[individual freedom]], or individual achievement.<ref name="McGoldrickGiordano2005">{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6Al1kB_6GyMC|title=Ethnicity and family therapy|last=McGoldrick|first=Monica|last2=Giordano|first2=Joseph|last3=Garcia-Preto|first3=Nydia|date=18 August 2005|publisher=Guilford Press|isbn=978-1-59385-020-3|page=445|accessdate=24 October 2011}}</ref> In extreme cases, engaging in acts that are deemed to tarnish the honor of the family results in [[Honor killing|honor killings]]. An honor killing is the [[homicide]] of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family or community, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an [[arranged marriage]], being in a relationship that is disapproved by their relatives, having [[sex outside marriage]], becoming the victim of [[rape]], dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, or engaging in [[Homosexuality|homosexual]] relations.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/honourcrimes/|title=Ethics: Honour Crimes|date=1 January 1970|publisher=BBC|accessdate=23 December 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/honor%20killing|title=Honor killing: Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary|date=31 August 2012|website=Merriam-webster.com|accessdate=23 December 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/honor+killing?s=t|title=Honor killing definition|website=Dictionary.reference.com|accessdate=23 December 2013}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2012/01/13/world/europe/turkey-gay-killing|title=Shocking gay honor killing inspires movie|accessdate=16 August 2013|website=Edition.cnn.com}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://edition.cnn.com/2011/CRIME/02/23/arizona.iraqi.father/index.html|title=Iraqi immigrant convicted in Arizona 'honor killing' awaits sentence|date=23 February 2011|accessdate=16 August 2013|website=Edition.cnn.com}}</ref>
 
 
=== Dowry, bride price and dower ===
{{Further information|Dowry|Bride price|Dower}}
[[Պատկեր:Thai_Bride_Price_2008.jpg|ձախից|մինի|A traditional, formal presentation of the bride price at a Thai engagement ceremony.]]
Dowry is property (money, goods, or estate) that a wife or wife's family gives to her husband when the wife and husband marry.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dowry|title=Definition of DOWRY|website=Merriam-webster.com|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref> Offering dowry was common in many cultures historically (including in Europe and North America), but this practice today is mostly restricted to some areas primarily in South Asia ([[India]], [[Pakistan]], [[Nepal]], [[Bangladesh]]).
 
=== Reproductive rights ===
 
{{Main article|Reproductive rights}}
{{Further|Forced sterilization|Forced pregnancy|Forced abortion}}
Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and [[reproductive health]]. These include the right to decide on issues regarding the number of children born, family planning, contraception, and private life, free from [[coercion]] and [[discrimination]]; as well as the right to access health services and adequate information.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/hhr/activities/GRR/en/|title=Gender, equity, human rights|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unfpa.org/swp/2005/english/ch3/ch3_box9.htm|title=State of World Population 2005|website=UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/topics/gender_rights/sexual_health/en/|title=WHO – Gender and human rights|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/campaigns/stop-violence-against-women/issues/implementation-existing-laws/srr|title=Get Involved|website=Amnesty.org|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref> According to [[UNFPA]], reproductive rights "include the right to decide the number, timing and spacing of children, the right to voluntarily marry and establish a family, and the right to the highest attainable standard of health, among others".<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unfpa.org/rights/rights.htm|title=Supporting the Constellation of Reproductive Rights|website=UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref> [[Family planning]] refers to the factors that may be considered by individuals and couples in order for them to control their fertility, anticipate and attain the desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/topics/family_planning/en/|title=Family planning|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unfpa.org/family-planning|title=Family planning|website=UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref>
 
 
=== Children's rights ===
{{Main article|Children's rights}}
Children's rights are the human rights of children, with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors, including their right to association with both parents, their right to human identity, their right to be provided in regard to their other basic needs, and their right to be free from violence and abuse.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_protecting.html|title=Protecting children's rights|website=Unicef.org|accessdate=23 October 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.hrw.org/topic/childrens-rights|title=Children's Rights|website=Hrw.org|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=https://www.amnesty.org/en/children|title=Children and human rights|publisher=Amnesty International|accessdate=23 October 2017}}</ref>
 
=== Marriage rights ===
{{Main article|Marriage laws}}
Each jurisdiction has its own [[marriage laws]]. These laws differ significantly from country to country; and these laws are often controversial. Areas of controversy include [[women's rights]] as well as [[same-sex marriage]].
 
 
=== Family medicine ===
{{Main article|Family medicine}}
Family medicine is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; it is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://familymedicine.bsd.uchicago.edu/OurDepartment/WhatIsFamilyMedicine|title=What is Family Medicine?|website=Uchicago.edu – Department of Family Medicine|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref> The importance of family medicine is being increasingly recognized.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/dg/speeches/2013/family_medicine_20130626/en/|title=The rising importance of family medicine|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref>
[[Պատկեր:2012_Infant_mortality_rate_per_1000_live_births,_under-5,_world_map.svg|մինի|World infant mortality rates in 2012<ref>[http://www.childmortality.org/files_v16/download/UNICEF%202013%20IGME%20child%20mortality%20Report_Final.pdf Infant Mortality Rates in 2012] {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140714153724/http://www.childmortality.org/files_v16/download/UNICEF%202013%20IGME%20child%20mortality%20Report_Final.pdf|date=July 14, 2014}}, [[UNICEF]], 2013.</ref>]]
 
=== Maternal mortality ===
{{Main article|MaternalՄայրական mortalityմահացություն}}
Maternal mortality or maternal death is defined by WHO as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."<ref name="autogenerated1">{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/healthinfo/statistics/indmaternalmortality/en|title=Maternal mortality ratio (per 100 000 live births)|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref> Historically, maternal mortality was a major cause of women's death. In recent decades, advances in healthcare have resulted in rates of maternal mortality having dropped dramatically, especially in Western countries. Maternal mortality however remains a serious problem in many African and Asian counties.<ref name="autogenerated1" /><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/en/|title=Maternal mortality|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref>
 
=== Infant and child mortality ===
{{Main article|Infant2=Մանկական mortality|Child mortalityմահացություն}}
Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age. Child mortality is the death of a child before the child's fifth birthday. Like maternal mortality, infant and child mortality were common throughout history, but have decreased significantly in modern times.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/gho/child_health/mortality/neonatal_infant_text/en/|title=Infant mortality|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs178/en/|title=Children: reducing mortality|website=Who.int|accessdate=12 April 2017}}</ref>
 
 
== Work-family balance ==
{{Further|Work–life balance|Work–family balance in the United States}}
Work-family balance is a concept involving proper prioritizing between work/career and family life. It includes issues relating to the way how work and families intersect and influence each other. At a political level, it is reflected through policies such [[maternity leave]] and [[paternity leave]]. Since the 1950s, social scientists as well as feminists have increasingly criticized gendered arrangements of work and care, and the male breadwinner role, and policies are increasingly targeting men as fathers, as a tool of changing gender relations.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Bjørnholt|first1=M.|year=2014|title=Changing men, changing times; fathers and sons from an experimental gender equality study|url=http://www.margunnbjornholt.no/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Changing-men-changing-times-fathers-and-sons-from-an-experimental-gender-equality-study.pdf|format=PDF|journal=[[The Sociological Review]]|volume=62|issue=2|pages=295–315|doi=10.1111/1467-954X.12156|authorlink1=Margunn Bjørnholt}}</ref>