«Մասնակից:MarSed55/Ավազարկղ»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
(Նոր էջ «'''Թոմաս Ալվա Էդիսոն''' (փետրվարի 11, 1847- հոկտեմբերի 18,1931), ամերիկացի գյուտարար և գործարար, Ամե...»:)
 
In 1866, at the age of 19, Edison moved to [[Louisville, Kentucky]], where, as an employee of [[Western Union]], he worked the [[Associated Press]] bureau [[News agency|news wire]]. Edison requested the night shift, which allowed him plenty of time to spend at his two favorite pastimes—reading and experimenting. Eventually, the latter pre-occupation cost him his job. One night in 1867, he was working with a [[lead–acid battery]] when he spilled [[sulfuric acid]] onto the floor. It ran between the floorboards and onto his boss's desk below. The next morning Edison was fired.<ref>Baldwin, pp. 40–41</ref>
 
His first patent was for the electric vote recorder, {{US patent|90646}}, which was granted on June 1, 1869.<ref>[http://edison.rutgers.edu/vote.htm The Edison Papers], Rutgers University. Retrieved March 20, 2007.</ref> Finding little demand for the machine, Edison moved to New York City shortly thereafter. One of his mentors during those early years was a fellow telegrapher and inventor named [[Franklin Leonard Pope]], who allowed the impoverished youth to live and work in the basement of his [[Elizabeth, New Jersey]], home, while Edison worked for [[Samuel Laws]] at the Gold Indicator Company. Pope and Edison founded their own company in October 1869, working as electrical engineers and inventors. Edison began developing a multiplex telegraphic system, which could send two messages simultaneously, in 1874.<ref>[https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-recordings/articles-and-essays/biography/life-of-thomas-alva-edison/ "Life of Thomas Alva Edison"], ''Inventing Entertainment: The Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies'', [[Library of Congress]].</ref>
 
== Menlo Park laboratory (1876–1886) ==
=== Research and development facility ===
[[Պատկեր:Menlo_Park_Laboratory.JPG|մինի|Edison's Menlo Park Laboratory, reconstructed at Greenfield Village at [[Henry Ford Museum]] in Dearborn, Michigan.]]
Edison's major innovation was the establishment of an industrial research lab in 1876. It was built in [[Menlo Park, New Jersey|Menlo Park]], a part of Raritan Township (now named [[Edison, New Jersey|Edison Township]] in his honor) in [[Middlesex County, New Jersey]], with the funds from the sale of Edison's [[quadruplex telegraph]]. After his demonstration of the telegraph, Edison was not sure that his original plan to sell it for $4,000 to $5,000 was right, so he asked Western Union to make a bid. He was surprised to hear them offer $10,000 (${{Inflation|US|10,000|1874|fmt=c|r=-2}} in today's dollars.{{Inflation-fn|US}}), which he gratefully accepted.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.bounceenergy.com/blog/2013/02/happy-birthday-thomas-edison/|title=Happy Birthday, Thomas Edison!|last=Trollinger|first=Vernon|date=February 11, 2013|work=Bounce Energy|accessdate=February 24, 2013}}</ref> The quadruplex telegraph was Edison's first big financial success, and Menlo Park became the first institution set up with the specific purpose of producing constant technological innovation and improvement. Edison was legally attributed with most of the inventions produced there, though many employees carried out research and development under his direction. His staff was generally told to carry out his directions in conducting research, and he drove them hard to produce results.
 
[[William Joseph Hammer]], a consulting electrical engineer, started working for Edison and began his duties as a laboratory assistant in December 1879. He assisted in experiments on the telephone, phonograph, electric railway, [[Edison Ore-Milling Company|iron ore separator]], [[Incandescent light bulb|electric lighting]], and other developing inventions. However, Hammer worked primarily on the incandescent electric lamp and was put in charge of tests and records on that device (see [[Hammer Historical Collection of Incandescent Electric Lamps]]). In 1880, he was appointed chief engineer of the Edison Lamp Works. In his first year, the plant under General Manager [[Francis Robbins Upton]] turned out 50,000 lamps. According to Edison, Hammer was "a pioneer of incandescent electric lighting".<ref>{{cite book|title=Thomas Edison: Life of an Electrifying Man|last=Biographiq|publisher=Filiquarian Publishing, LLC.|year=2008|isbn=978-1-59986-216-3|page=9}}</ref> {{anchor|sprague}}[[Frank J. Sprague]], a competent mathematician and former [[United States Navy|naval officer]], was recruited by [[Edward H. Johnson]] and joined the Edison organization in 1883. One of Sprague's contributions to the Edison Laboratory at Menlo Park was to expand Edison's mathematical methods. Despite the common belief that Edison did not use mathematics, analysis of his notebooks reveal that he was an astute user of mathematical analysis conducted by his assistants such as Francis Robbins Upton, for example, determining the critical parameters of his electric lighting system including lamp resistance by an analysis of [[Ohm's Law]], [[Joule's first law|Joule's Law]] and economics.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://edison.rutgers.edu/|title=The Thomas A. Edison Papers|publisher=Edison.rutgers.edu|archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5QWPkyLnu?url=http://edison.rutgers.edu/|archivedate=July 22, 2007|accessdate=January 29, 2009|deadurl=no|df=}}</ref>
=== Phonograph ===
[[Պատկեր:Edison_and_phonograph_edit1.jpg|մինի|Photograph of Edison with his phonograph (2nd model), taken in [[Mathew Brady]]'s Washington, D.C. studio in April 1878.]]
{{listen|pos=left|filename=[[Պատկեր:Thomas Edison Mary had lamb.ogg|title=200px|մինի|ձախից|Mary Had a Little Lamb|description=Thomas Edison reciting "Mary Had a Little Lamb" in 1929.}}]]
Edison began his career as an inventor in [[Newark, New Jersey]], with the automatic repeater and his other improved telegraphic devices, but the invention that first gained him wider notice was the [[phonograph]] in 1877.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/edhtml/edbio.html|title=The Life of Thomas A. Edison|work=The Library of Congress|accessdate=February 24, 2013}}</ref> This accomplishment was so unexpected by the public at large as to appear almost magical. Edison became known as "The Wizard of Menlo Park," New Jersey.<ref name="Wizard" />
 
 
=== Telegraph improvements ===
{{original research|section|date=December 2016}}
 
The key to Edison's fortunes was telegraphy. With knowledge gained from years of working as a telegraph operator, he learned the basics of electricity. This allowed him to make his early fortune with the [[Ticker tape|stock ticker]], the first electricity-based broadcast system. On August 9, 1892, Edison received a patent for a two-way telegraph.
 
Edison was said to have been influenced by a popular [[Food faddism|fad diet]] in his last few years; "the only liquid he consumed was a pint of milk every three hours".<ref name="Israel">{{cite book|title=Edison: A Life of Invention|last=Israel|first=Paul|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|year=2000|isbn=978-0-471-36270-8|authorlink=Paul Israel (historian)}}</ref> He is reported to have believed this diet would restore his health. However, this tale is doubtful. In 1930, the year before Edison died, Mina said in an interview about him, "correct eating is one of his greatest hobbies." She also said that during one of his periodic "great scientific adventures", Edison would be up at 7:00, have breakfast at 8:00, and be rarely home for lunch or dinner, implying that he continued to have all three.<ref name="condensed1042" />
 
Edison became the owner of his [[Milan, Ohio]], birthplace in 1906. On his last visit, in 1923, he was reportedly shocked to find his old home still lit by lamps and candles.{{citation needed|date=October 2014}}
 
=== Death ===
Mina outlived Thomas Edison, dying on August 24, 1947.<ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Edison's Widow Very III|date=August 21, 1947|work=New York Times|quote=|coauthors=}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=|title=Rites for Mrs. Edison|date=August 26, 1947|work=New York Times|quote=|coauthors=}}</ref>
 
Wanting to be an inventor, but not having much of an aptitude for it, Thomas Edison's son, Thomas Alva Edison Jr.. became a problem for his father and his father's business. Starting in the 1890s, Thomas Jr. became involved in [[snake oil]] products and shady and fraudulent enterprises producing products being sold to the public as "''The Latest Edison Discovery''". The situation became so bad that Thomas Sr. had to take his son to court to stop the practices, finally agreeing to pay Thomas Jr. an allowance of $35.00 ({{Inflation|US|35.00|1885|fmt=eq|r=0}}{{Inflation-fn|US}}) per week, in exchange for not using the Edison name; the son began using aliases, such as Burton Willard. Thomas Jr., suffering from alcoholism, depression and ill health, worked at several menial jobs, but by 1931 (towards the end of his life) he would obtain a role in the Edison company, thanks to the intervention of his brother.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://edisontinfoil.com/taejr/edisonjr.htm|title=LOST IN HISTORY: Thomas A. Edison, Junior|date=1997|accessdate=December 30, 2017|author=René Rondeau}}</ref><ref>{{cit web|title=Thomas Alva Edison Jr|publisher=[[National Park Service]]|url=https://www.nps.gov/index.htm|accessdate=December 30, 2017}}</ref>
 
== Views ==
 
== See also ==
{{Portal|Thomas Edison}}
{{Wikipedia books|Thomas Edison}}
 
* [[List of Edison patents]]
* [[Thomas Alva Edison Birthplace]]
 
== External links ==
{{external links|section|date=January 2015}}
{{commons}}
{{wikiquote}}
 
* {{Britannica|179233}}
* {{In Our Time|Thomas Edison|b00wdjr8|Thomas_Edison}}
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgwY2SdRJ_4 Interview with Thomas Edison in 1931]
* [http://ariwatch.com/VS/TheDiaryOfThomasEdison.htm The Diary of Thomas Edison]
* {{Gutenberg author|id=Edison,+Thomas+A.+(Thomas+Alva)}}
* {{Internet Archive author|sname=Thomas Alva Edison}}
* [https://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals_iv/sections/thomas_edison_patent.html Edison's patent application for the light bulb] at the National Archives.
* {{IMDb name|id=0249379|name=Thomas Edison}}
{{Gutenberg|no=820|name=Edison, His Life and Inventions}} by Frank Lewis Dyer and Thomas Commerford Martin.
 
* {{Internet Archive short film|id=gov.archives.arc.49442|name=''Story of Thomas Alva Edison''}}
* [http://edison.rutgers.edu/ Edison Papers] Rutgers.
* [http://www.edisonian.com/ Edisonian Museum Antique Electrics]
* [http://www.thomasedison.org Edison Innovation Foundation] – [[Non-profit foundation]] supporting the legacy of Thomas Edison.
* {{Find a Grave|grid=1630|name=Thomas Alva Edison}}
* [http://hfha.org/the-ford-story/the-illustrious-vagabonds The Illustrious Vagabonds] Henry Ford Heritage Association
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=vuQDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA614&dq=Popular+Mechanics+1931+curtiss&hl=en&ei=sZj0TNiVFcPXngeTp8W2CQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Popular%20Mechanics%201931%20curtiss&f=true "The World's Greatest Inventor"] October 1931, ''[[Popular Mechanics]]''. Detailed, illustrated article.
* {{YouTube|id=IfFIeUgt_7Q "A Day with Thomas A. Edison"}} – 1922 – A rare documentary silent film
* [https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/light "Edison's Miracle of Light"] PBS – ''American Experience''. Premiered January 2015.
 
* {{PM20|FID=pe/004481}}
 
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