«Լացիո»–ի խմբագրումների տարբերություն

Ավելացվել է 3782 բայտ ,  7 տարի առաջ
Առանց խմբագրման ամփոփման
 
Լացիոյի նախաապենինները և Լիրի գետը՝ Սոկո վտակի հետ զբաղեցնում են Տիբերի հովտի աջ մասը: Կան 3 խումբ լեռներ, որոնք ունեն հրաբխային ծագում. Վոլսինի, Կիմինի և Սաբատինի: Վերջիններս կազմում են Բոլսենայի մեծ մասը՝ Վիկո և Բրակիանո լճերի հետ միասին: Տիբերի հարավում կան այլ լեռնային խմբեր, որոնք կազմում են պրիապինենների մի մասը. Ալբիական բլուրները (նույպես հրաբխային ծագման), կրային ծագման Լեպինին, Աուսոնի և Աուրունկի լեռները: Լացիոյի ապենինները շարունակությունն են Աբրուզոի ապենիների: Ռիտինի լեռները՝ Տերմինիլոի հետ (2,213 մ), Սաբինի լեռները, Պրենեստինի, Սիմբրուինի և Էրինիքի լեռները արևելքում շարունակվում են Լիրիից մինչև Մայինարդե լեռներ: Ամենաբարձր գագաթը Գորզանո լեռն է (2,458 մ)՝ Աբրուզոի սահմանին:
 
== Պատմությունը ==
The Italian word Lazio descends from the Latin word Latium. The name of the region also survives in the tribal designation of the ancient population of Latins, Latini in the Latin language spoken by them and passed on to the city-state of Ancient Rome. Although the demography of ancient Rome was multi-ethnic, including, for example, Etruscans and other Italics besides the Latini, the latter were the dominant constituent. In Roman mythology, the tribe of the Latini took their name from king Latinus. Apart from the mythical derivation of Lazio given by the ancients as the place where Jupiter "lay hidden" from his father seeking to kill him, a major modern etymology is that Lazio comes from the Latin word "latus", meaning "wide", expressing the idea of "flat land" meaning the Roman Campagna. Much of Lazio is in fact flat or rolling. The lands originally inhabited by the Latini were extended into the territories of the Samnites, the Marsi, the Hernici, the Aequi, the Aurunci and the Volsci, all surrounding Italic tribes. This larger territory was still called Latium, but it was divided into Latium adiectum or Latium Novum, the added lands or New Latium, and Latium Vetus, or Old Latium, the older, smaller region.
 
The northern border of Lazio was the Tiber river, which divided it from Etruria.
 
The emperor Augustus officially united almost all of present-day Italy into a single geo-political entity, Italia, dividing it into eleven regions. Lazio – together with the present region of Campania immediately to the southeast of Lazio and the seat of Neapolis – became Region I.
 
After the Gothic War (535-554) and the Byzantine conquest, this region regained its freedom, because the "Roman Duchy" became the property of the Eastern Emperor. However, the long wars against the barbarian Longobards weakened the region, which was seized by the Roman Bishop who already had several properties in those territories.
 
The strengthening of the religious and ecclesiastical aristocracy led to continuous power struggles between lords and the Roman bishop until the middle of the 16th century. Innocent III tried to strengthen his own territorial power, wishing to assert his authority in the provincial administrations of Tuscia, Campagna and Marittima through the Church's representatives, in order to reduce the power of the Colonna family. Other popes tried to do the same. During the period when the papacy resided in Avignon, France (1309–1377), the feudal lords' power increased due to the absence of the Pope from Rome. Small communes, and Rome above all, opposed the lords' increasing power, and with Cola di Rienzo, they tried to present themselves as antagonists of the ecclesiastical power. However, between 1353 and 1367, the papacy regained control of Lazio and the rest of the Papal States.
 
From the middle of the 16th century, the papacy politically unified Lazio with the Papal States[citation needed], so that these territories became provincial administrations of St. Peter's estate; governors in Viterbo, in Marittima and Campagna, and in Frosinone administered them for the papacy.
 
Lazio comprised the short-lived Roman Republic, in which it became a puppet state of the First French Republic under the forces of Napoleon Bonaparte. The Republic existed from 15 February 1798 until Lazio was returned to the Papal States in October 1799. In 1809, Lazio was annexed to the French Empire, but returned under the Pope in 1815.
 
On 20 September 1870 the capture of Rome, during the reign of Pope Pius IX, and France's defeat at Sedan, completed Italian unification, and Lazio was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.
 
In 1927 the territory of the Province of Rieti, belonging to Umbria and Abruzzo, joined Lazio.